In the Name of Allah; the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful
There are two views concerning the establishment of Allah جَلَّ جَلَالَهُ over His ‘Arsh (Throne). According to ‘Abd Allah b. Sa’id b. Kullab (d. 240 H) and the Kullabiyya, Allah is established over His Throne without contiguity (Mummaassah). According to the Mujassimah (those who believe God is a corporal body), such as Muhammad b. Karram al-Sijistani, and the misguided Karramiyya sect, Allah is touching His Throne, or in contiguity (Mummaasah) with it.
Our view, however, is that both statements are speculative and should, therefore, not be professed. In other words, there is no evidence from the divinely-revealed texts of the Qur’an and Sunnah to either affirm or negate that Allah Most High is in contiguity with or physically touching His ‘Arsh.
Some of the latter scholars of the Salaf, such as Imam Abu Nasr al-Sijzi (d. 444 H), leaned toward the view that Allah is above His Throne but without contiguity/contact or touch. Imam al-Sijzi stated:
واعتقاد أهل الحق أن الله سبحانه فوق العرش بذاته من غير مماسة وأن الكرامية ومن تابعهم على قول المماسة ضلال
“The creed of the people of truth is that Allah, Holy is He, is above the Throne in His Essence without contiguity (Mummaasah), and the Karramiyyah and those who follow them are upon the misguided saying (affirming) contiguity (Mummaasah).”
Reference: Al-Radd ‘ala man Ankara al-Harf wal-Sawt; pp. 126 – 127
However, none of the early Salaf or scholars of Ahlus Sunnati wal Jama’ah seem to have either affirmed or negated Mummaasah with Allah for being over His Throne.
Now let the reader keep in mind that the attribute of Mummaasah is neither affirmed nor negated for Allah specifically in relation to the ‘Arsh (Throne). In fact, as indicated by the statement of Imam Abu Nasr al-Sijzi, negation of Mummaasah in relation to the ‘Arsh seems to be closer to the reality, but not because the attribute of Mummaasah is impossible or a defect for Allah.
On the contrary, the narrator Abu Saleh Maysarah al-Kufi (rahimahullah) says:
إِنَّ الله لَمْ يَمَسَّ شَيْئًا مِنْ خَلْقِهِ غَيْرَ ثَلَاثٍ: خَلَقَ آدَمَ بِيَدِهِ, وَكَتَبَ التَّوْرَاةَ بِيَدِهِ, وَغَرَسَ جَنَّةَ عَدْنٍ بِيَدِهِ
“Verily, Allah did not touch anything of His creation except for three: He create Adam with His Hand, wrote the Torah with His Hand, and planted Jannah (Paradise) of Eden with His Hand.”
Reference: Naqdh al-Darimi ‘alal-Marisi; no. 39
This is also reported from Ikrimah:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يَمَسَّ بِيَدِهِ شَيْئًا إِلا ثَلاثَةً : خَلَقَ آدَمَ بِيَدِهِ وَغَرَسَ الْجَنَّةَ بِيَدِهِ وَكَتَبَ التَّوْرَاةَ بِيَدِهِ
(Al-Sunnah of Abdullah b. Hanbal)
And from Khalid b. Ma’dan (d. 105 H):
إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يَمَسَّ بِيَدِهِ إِلا آدَمَ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ خَلَقَهِ بِيَدِهِ ، وَالْجَنَّةَ ، وَالتَّوْرَاةَ كَتَبَهَا بِيَدِهِ ، قَالَ : وَدَمْلَجَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لُؤْلُؤَةً بِيَدِهِ فَغَرَسَ فِيهَا قَضِيبًا فَقَالَ امْتَدِّي حَتَّى أَرْضِي وَأخْرِجِي مَا فِيكِ بِإِذْنِي فَأَخْرَجَتِ الأَنْهَارَ وَالثِّمَارَ
Hence, the attribute of Mass (contiguity or touching) is affirmed with Allah, but only for three specific things from His creation. We believe that Allah Most High wrote with His own Hand the Torah and gave it to Prophet Moses (peace be upon him).
Some people may object to this and ask how is it possible that the Dhaat (Essence) of Allah come into physical contact (Mummaasah) with something from His creation, such as touching the Torah, Adam, and Jannah with His Hand?
The answer to this objection is simply that we are not responsible for explaining “how”. Nor does such a belief necessitate either Tajsim or Tashbih. As long as a Muslim negates any general resemblance between Allah and His creation they are safe from the heresy of Tashbih (resembling Allah to His creation). So for example we believe that Allah touched the Torah with His Hand in that He wrote down the Torah with His Hand coming into contact with it, but we negate that this resembles a created human being writing something with their hand. And Allah knows best.