Thursday, 24 November 2016

Did Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (A.S) Make Takfir of His Deniers?

In the Name of Allah; the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful

May salutations of peace and blessings be showered upon our beloved master Prophet Muhammad, and upon his family, companions and progeny.

One of the objections against Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyyah movement who claimed to be the Mahdi and Messiah, which I repeatedly encounter, is that he and his followers make Takfeer of non-Ahmadi Muslims, i.e., Muslims who do not believe in or accept Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.

I have already touched upon this controversy in my series refuting Iqbal’s paper Islam and Ahmadism, in which Iqbal has put forward this accusation quite strongly. The reader can refer to it here.

The crucial statement of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad that represents his basic position was quoted there, and I quote it again here:

ابتدا سے میرا یہی مذہب ہے کہ میرے دعوے کے انکار کی وجہ سے کوئی شخص کافر یا دجّال نہیں ہوسکتا۔ 

ہاں ضال اور جادہ صواب ‍‌‏سے منہرف ضرور ہوگا۔ اور میں اس کا نام بے ایمان نہیں رکھتا۔ ہاں میں ایسے سب لوگوں کو ضال اور جادہ صدق و صواب سے دور سمجھتا ہوں جو ان سچّا‌‎‍‌‎‎ئیوں سے انکار کرتے ہیں جو خدا تعالی نے میرے پر کھولی ہیں۔ میں بلا شبہ ایسے ہر ایک آدمی کو ضلالت کی آلودگی سے مبتلا سمجھتا ہوں جو حق اور راستی سے منحرف ہے۔ لیکن میں کسی کلمہ گو کا نام کافر نہیں رکھتا جبتک وہ میری تکفیر اور تکذیب کر کے اپنے تئیں خود کافر نہ بنالیوے۔ سو اس معاملہ میں ہمیشہ سے سبقت میرے مخالفوں کی طرف سے ہے کہ انہوں نے مجھ کو کافر کہا۔ میرے لئے فتوی طیار کیا۔ میں نے سبقت کر کے ان کے لئے کوئی فتوی طیار نہیں کیا۔ اور اس بات کا وہ خود اقرار کر سکتے ہیں کہ اگر میں اللہ تعالی کے نزدیک مسلمان ہوں تو مجھ کو کافر بنانے سے رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کا فتوی انپر یہی ہے کہ وہ خود کافر ہیں۔ سو میں ان کو کافر نہیں کہتا۔ بلکہ وہ مجھ کو کافر کہہ کر خود فتوی نبوی کے نیچے آتے ہیں۔

Translation: “From the beginning, it has always been my madhhab (belief) that by denying my claims no person will become a kaafir (unbeliever) or dajjaal (antichrist). Yes, (such a person) is misguided and removed from the right path. But I do not name him as Bay Imaan (faithless). Yes, I consider all such people as being misguided and far from the true and right path who deny those truths which God Most High has revealed upon me. I, without a doubt, consider every such man as being afflicted by the disease of misguidance, removed from the true path. However, I do not name anyone who professes the Kalimah as Kaafir unless he does Takfeer and Takdheeb of me, whereby he makes himself a Kaafir. Thus, in this matter it has always been my adversaries who, from the start, called me a Kaafir. They prepared a Fatwaa against me. But I never prepared a Fatwaa against them. And they themselves can confirm that if I am a Muslim in the sight of Allah Most High, then by making me a Kaafir the Fatwaa of Allah’s Messenger Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam upon them is this that they themselves are Kaafir. Thus, I do not call them as Kaafir. Rather, they call me as Kaafir thereby themselves coming under the Prophetic Fatwaa.”

In a footnote to this statement, Hadrat Mirza sahib writes:

یہ نکتہ یاد رکھنےکے لائق ہے کہ اپنے دعوے کے انکار کرنے والے کو کافر کہنا یہ صرف ان نبیوں کی شان ہے جو خدا تعالی کی طرف سے شریعت اور احکام جدیدہ لاتے ہیں۔ لیکن صاحب الشریعت کے ماسوا جس قدر ملہم اور محدّث ہیں گو وہ کیسی ہی جناب الہی میں اعلی شان رکھتے ہوں اور خلعت مکالمہ الہیہ سے سرفراز ہوں۔ ان کے انکار سے کوئی کافر نہیں بنجاتا۔

Translation: “This point is also worthy of remembering that to call anyone a Kaafir who rejects one’s claims is only the right of those Prophets who bring from God Most High a Shari’ah and new commandments. But apart from the Saahib al-Shari’ah whatever degree (of excellence) held by a Mulham and Muhaddath, regardless of the high status he holds with God and being honored with the robe of being conversant with the Divine nobody will become a Kaafir through denial of him.”

Reference: Ruhani Khaza’in; v. 15, pp. 432 433

The summary of the statement is that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad does not, in principle, consider anyone who denies any of his claims to be an unbeliever outside the fold of Islam. He does, however, consider such people as being misguided and astray from the truth, but they are still considered as Muslims. With regard to the aggressive adversaries of Ghulam Ahmad who issued Fatawaa (legal edicts) against him declaring him as an apostate, he regards such adversaries as coming under the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) statement:

أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ قَالَ لِأَخِيهِ يَا كَافِرُ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِهَا أَحَدُهُمَا

“If a man says to his brother: ‘O Kaafir!’ Then surely one of them is such.”
(Sahih al-Bukhari)

What this means is that if a person accuses another of being a Kaafir (unbeliever), either he is right in his accusation, but, if he is making a false accusation, and the person whom he proclaimed to be a Kaafir is in fact a true believing Muslim, then the one who has made this false accusation himself has the Fatwaa of Kufr rebounded on him. It was on the basis of this Prophetic Tradition that Ghulam Ahmad suggested that his bigoted adversaries have their verdicts of Kufr against him rebounded on themselves since he is a true believing Muslim in the sight of Allah, and the adversaries have launched an impure and false allegation against him.

Furthermore, Ghulam Ahmad clarifies the principle in the footnote that it is only denial of the claim of a Prophet who is sent by Allah with a Shari’ah containing fresh commandments that constitutes actual and real Kufr. But while rejection of a Mulham and Muhaddath (someone who is inspired and conversant with Allah but does not bring a Shari’ah) is something that leads to misguidance and can theoretically lead to the extinguishing of the light of faith, nevertheless, such a rejection cannot, by principle, result in immediate Kufr.

Regarding the allegation that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad declared as unbeliever anyone who does not believe in him, even if such a person had never heard his name or belongs to a country that had not as of yet received his message, Hadrat Mirza sahib outright repudiated this false allegation, which originates with one Dr. Abdul Hakim Khan of Patiala. The latter was initially a follower of Ghulam Ahmad, but due to his un-Islamic and heretical ideas, was expelled from the Ahmadiyyah congregation:

یہ کہ ڈاکتر عبد الحکیم خان اپنے رسالہ المسیح الدجّال وغیرہ میں میرے پر یہ الزام لگاتا ہے کہ گویا میں نے اپنی کتاب میں لکھا ہے کہ جو شخص میرے پر ایمان نہیں لائیگا گو وہ میرے نام سے بھی بیخبر ہوگا اور گو وہ ایسے ملک میں ہوگا جہاں تک میری دعوت نہیں پہنچی تب بھی وہ کافر ہوجاۓ گا اور دوزخ میں پڑیگا۔ یہ ڈاکتر مذکور کا سراسر افترا‌‏ئ ہے میں نے کسی کتاب یا کسی اشتہار میں ایسا نہیں لکھا۔

Translation: “Dr. Abdul Hakim Khan in his article Al-Masih al-Dajjal (“the False Messiah”) etc. has launched an allegation against me that I have written in my book that any person who does not believe in me, even if he is unaware of my name or lives in a country to which my invitation hasn’t reached, even then he is a Kaafir and will remain in Hellfire. This is a manifest fabrication of the above mentioned doctor; I have not written anything like this in any of my books or any of my posters.”

Reference: Haqiqat-ul-Wahi; p. 178


  1. Ghulam Ahmed said that people who think Hazrat Isa did not die commit the greatest shirk (shirk azeem) [Ruhani Khazain Vol. 22 Pg 660].
    How is that not proclaiming all non-Ahmedis non-Muslims?

    1. It is true Ghulam Ahmad wrote that the belief that Jesus of Nazareth is alive in Heaven with a corporal life is "a great Shirk". Notice he wrote Shirk without the definite article, so it is an example of a great Shirk, but it is not Ash-Shirk that constitutes disbelief from Islam like the worship of idols, etc. Secondly, Ghulam Ahmad himself clarified this point by immediately writing after "it is nothing but a great shirk EATING GOOD DEEDS". By writing that falling into this shirk a person's good deeds are consumed, Ghulam Ahmad made it clear that he does not mean the kind of Shirk which makes a person a disbeliever, because a disbeliever need not concern himself with his deeds being consumed or not, that is a concern only for sinful Muslims.
      So it should be clear that when it is said that a Muslim falls into or commits an act of Kufr or Shirk, it does not necessarily mean that such a Muslim is a Kafir or a Mushrik that has been expelled from Islam. Even the Prophet (Sall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said that between belief and disbelief and Shirk is abandoning the Salat, but majority of the Ulama of Ahl us-Sunnati wal-Jama'ah do not understand from that Hadith that a Muslim who does not pray but nevertheless confesses belief in Islam has been expelled from Islam.

    2. So he said that whoever doesn't believe in his version of the Qur'an isn't a kaafir, but commits one of the greatest sins and will burn in Hell. Correct?

    3. Brother there is only one version of the Quran though there are differences in interpretation. Ultimately it is Allah Who decides who will burn in Hell. We are not authorized to judge souls, but yes, committing acts of Shirk or believing is false doctrines is dangerous and such a person, when the truth becomes evident to him yet he doesnt rectify himself is in danger of going to hell

  2. Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, in addition to declaring himself the Mahdi, the Messiah and a prophet, each successively one after the other, also declared not believing in him and his claims as kufr (disbelief) and any Muslim not believing in his claims as a kaafir (infidel). This is evidenced by the following passages:

    "اور خیر الرسل کی روحانیت نے اپنے ظہور کے کامل کے لیے اور اپنے نور کے غلبہ کیلیے ایک مظہر اختیار کیا جیسا کہ
    خدا تعالیٰ نے کتاب مبین میں وعدہ فرمایا تھا پس میں وہی مظہر ہوں پس ایمان لا اور کافروں سے مت ہو اور اگر چایتا ہے تو اس خدا تعالیٰ کے قول کو پڑھ ھوالذی ارسل رسولہ بالھدیٰ۔"

    (خطبہ الہامیہ مترجم مصنفہ ۱۹۰۱ء مطبوعہ ربوہ) ﴿رخ ۲۶۷ ج ۱۶ صفحہ ۲۶۷، ۲۶۸﴾*

    "And the spirit of the best of prophets with it's excellence of form and appearance and it's overpowering light manifested itself as Allah had promised in the Qur'an. Now I am that manifestation. Now believe in me and do not be from among the kaafirs and if you wish recite the words of Allah: ھوالذی ارسل رسولہ "بالھدیٰ
    (Khutba Alhamiya, Translated, Written 1901, Matbooa Rabooh)﴾R.K Volume 16, pg. 267,268﴿

    "کافر کا لفظ مومن کے مقابل پر ہے اور کفر دو قسم پر ہے۔
    ۱) ایک یہ کفر کہ ایک شخص اسلام سے ہی انکار کرتا ہے اور آحضرتﷺ کو خدا کا رسول نہیں مانتا۔
    ۲) دوسرے یہ کفر کہ مثلاً وہ مسیع موعود کو نہیں مانتا اور اس کو باوجودا تمام حُجت کے جُھوٹا جانتا ہے جس کے ماننے اور سچا جاننے کے بارے میں خدا اور رسول نے تاکید کی ہے اور پہلے نبیوں کی کتابوں میں بھی تاکید پای جاتی ہے۔ پس اِس لیے کہ وہ خدا اور رسول کے فرمان کا منکر ہے کافر ہے اور اگر غور سے دیکھا جاے تو دونوں قسم کے کفر ایک ہی قسم میں داخل ہیں کیوں کہ جو شخص باوجود شناخت کر لینے کے خدا اور اس رسول کے حکم کو نہیں مانتا وہ بموجب نصوص صریحہ قرآن اور حدیث کے خدا کو بھی نہیں مانتا۔"

    (حقیقتہ الوحی: صفحہ ۱۷۹، ۱۸۰ مصنفہ ۱۹۰۶ء مطبوعہ طبعہ اول ۱۹۰۷ء) ﴿رخ، ج ۲۲، ص۱۸۵، ۱۵۶﴾

    "The word kaafir is the opposite of momin, and there are two types of kufr.
    The first type of kufr is that someone rejects Islam in it's entirety and does not consider Muhammadﷺ as the prophet of Allah.
    The seconde type of kufr is that someone does not accept (Mirza Ghulam as) the Messiah and Mahdi and in spite of all the miracles considers him a liar; for whose acceptance (as Messiah and Mahdi) and attestation that he is truthful, injuctions and commands are given by Allah and His Prophetﷺ; and which are also found in the books of the earlier prophets (Torat and Injeel).
    Now because he is someone who rejects the command of Allah and His Prophetﷺ, he is a kaafir; and if looked at closely these two types of kufr are one and the same because whoever refuses to obey the command of Allah and His Prophetﷺ (of recognising Mirza Ghulam as the Messiah and Mahdi) even after his identification, by virtue of his refusal, he clearly and evidently refuses to accept the God and Prophetﷺ of the Qur'an and hadith."

    (Haqiqat al-Wahy: pg.179, 180, Written 1906, First Edition 1907)﴾R.K Volume 22, Page 185, 186﴿

  3. From the same book:

    "یہ عجیب بات ہے کہ آپ کافر کہنے والے اور نہ ماننے والے کو دو قسم کے انسان ٹھیراتے ہیں حالانکہ خدا کے نزدیک ایک ہی قسم ہے کیوں کہ جو شخص مجھے نہیں مانتا وہ اسی وجہ سے نہیں مانتا کہ وہ مجھے مفتری قراد دیتا ہے۔"

    ﴿رخ، ج ۲۲ ص ۱۶۷﴾

    It is a strange thing that you consider the kaafir who proclaims (his disbelief in Islam) and the kaafir who does not accept (Mirza Ghulam as the Messiah and Mahdi) as two different kinds, although the two are one and the same for Allah because whoever does not accept me he deems me a liar.

    ﴾R.K Volume 22, pg. 167﴿

    In the same book:

    ‏"علاوہ اِس کے جو مجھے نہیں مانتا وہ خدا اور رسول کو بھی نہیں مانتا کیونکہ میری نسبت خدا اور رسول کی پیشگوئی موجود ہے۔"

    ﴿رخ، ج ۲۲ ص ۱۶۸﴾

    Apart from this, whoever does not accept me (as the Messiah and Mahdi), he does not believe in Allah and His Prophet because I am the one who is foretold by Allah and His Prophet.
    ﴾R.K Volume 22, pg. 168﴿

    (خدا تعالیٰ نے میرے پر ظاہر کیا ہے کہ) ہر ایک شخص جس کو میری دعوت پہنچی ہے اور اُس نے مجھے قبول نہیں کیا وہ مسلمان نہیں ہے۔

    (حقیقتہ الوحی صفحہ ۱۶۳)﴿رخ، ج ۲۲ ص ۱۶۷﴾

    (Allah has revealed to me that) every person who received my invitation (to believe in me as the Messiah and Mahdi) and did not accept it that he is not a Muslim.
    (Haqiqat ul-Wahy pg. 163)﴾R.K Volume 22 pg. 167)

    جو شخص تیری پیروی نہ کرے گا اور تیری بیعت میں داخل نہ ہو گا اور صرف تیرا مخالف رہے گا وہ خدا اور رسول کی نافرمانی کرنے والا جہنمی ہے۔

    (اشتہار معیار الاخیار صفحہ ۸ مطبوعہ ضیاء الاسلام پریس قادیان ۲۵ می ۱۹۰۰ء)﴿مجموعہ اشتہارات ج ۳:۲۷۵﴾

    (Allah has revealed to me that) whoever does not obey you and doesn't swear allegiance to you and only remains in opposition to you, he disobeys Allah and His Prophet and that he will go to hell.
    (Advertisement Miyar al-Ikhyar pg. 8 Matbooa Zia al-Islam Press Qadian 25 May 1900)﴾Majmooa Ishtiharat 3:275﴿

    جو میرے مخالف تھے اُنکا نام عیسای اور یہودی اور مشرک رکھا گیا۔

    (نزول المسیح: صفحہ ۴ طبعہ اول مطبع ضیاء الاسلام قادیان، ۱۹۰۹ء)﴿رخ، ج ۱۸ ص۳۸۲﴾

    Those who were in opposition to me their names (and status) has been set as Christians and Jews and pagans.
    (Nuzool al-Maseeh pg. 4 First Edition Zia al-Islam Qadian 1909)﴾R.K Volume.18, pg. 372﴿

    فی الحقیقت دو شخص بڑے ہی بدبخت ہیں اور انس و جنّ میں اُن سا کوئ بھی بدطالع نہیں۔ ایک وہ شخص جس نے خاتم الانبیاء کو نہیں مانا۔ دوسرا وہ جو خاتم الخلفاء (یعنی بزعم خود مرزا) پر ایمان نہ لایا۔
    (الھدیٰ: صفحہ ۵ دارالامان قادیان ۱۹۰۲ء)﴿رخ، ج ۱۸ ص ۲۵۰﴾

    In truth, there are two kinds of people who are extremely wretched and from among mankind and jinn there is none who is more unfortunate than them. One is he who did not accept the Seal of the prophets (Muhammad). And the other is he who did not believe in the seal of the caliphs (Mirza Ghulam).
    (al-Huda: pg.5 Dar-al-Aman Qadian 1902)﴾R.K Volume 18, pg. 250﴿


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