بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Refutation of Dualism
The heresy of Thanawiya or dualism crept into the Muslim Umma through the toxic influence of Magianism or Zoroastrianism from Iran. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him & his family) said: “The Qadariya are the Magians of this Umma.” (Sunan Abi Dawud: Kitab al-Sunna) The Qadariya is the name for all those sects and groups ascribing themselves to Islam who hold that the human being is the creator of his own deeds and so makes his own Qadar or determination and not Allah. The Qadariya tend to believe that nothing is set in stone and that we are in a state of fluctuation where things are indefinite or undetermined. Zoroastrian dualists believe that there is a cosmic struggle between Ahura Mazda and Ahriman, and that the outcome of this struggle is unknown or undetermined. It is certainly true that there is a dualism between Light and Darkness or Truth and Falsehood, as the Holy Quran repeatedly makes clear, but in this the outcome is decidedly a triumph for Light/Truth: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Verily, falsehood is bound to vanish.” (Sura 17:81) According to Islamic theology, the Devil is already doomed but Allah Most High granted him respite until Judgment Day, at which time he will be thrown into the Fire along with all those who followed him (Sura 7:13-18; 15:34-43) The Devil has no Sultan (power or authority) over the pure servants of Allah, except for Waswas (whispering evil suggestions). This is something which Allah Most High has already determined. Furthermore, the belief of Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a is that Allah has already written the names of everyone who will be granted salvation and entered into Paradise and also the names of everyone that is doomed to Hell. It is mentioned in a Hadith:
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِي، قَالَ خَرَجَ عَلَيْنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَفِي يَدِهِ كِتَابَانِ فَقَالَ أَتَدْرُونَ مَا هَذَانِ الْكِتَابَانِ. فَقُلْنَا لاَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ تُخْبِرَنَا . فَقَالَ لِلَّذِي فِي يَدِهِ الْيُمْنَى " هَذَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ فِيهِ أَسْمَاءُ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَأَسْمَاءُ آبَائِهِمْ وَقَبَائِلِهِمْ ثُمَّ أُجْمِلَ عَلَى آخِرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُزَادُ فِيهِمْ وَلاَ يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُمْ أَبَدًا . ثُمَّ قَالَ لِلَّذِي فِي شِمَالِهِ هَذَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ فِيهِ أَسْمَاءُ أَهْلِ النَّارِ وَأَسْمَاءُ آبَائِهِمْ وَقَبَائِلِهِمْ ثُمَّ أُجْمِلَ عَلَى آخِرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُزَادُ فِيهِمْ وَلاَ يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُمْ أَبَدًا . فَقَالَ أَصْحَابُهُ فَفِيمَ الْعَمَلُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنْ كَانَ أَمْرٌ قَدْ فُرِغَ مِنْهُ فَقَالَ سَدِّدُوا وَقَارِبُوا فَإِنَّ صَاحِبَ الْجَنَّةِ يُخْتَمُ لَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَإِنْ عَمِلَ أَىَّ عَمَلٍ وَإِنَّ صَاحِبَ النَّارِ يُخْتَمُ لَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ وَإِنْ عَمِلَ أَىَّ عَمَلٍ . ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِيَدَيْهِ فَنَبَذَهُمَا ثُمَّ قَالَ " فَرَغَ رَبُّكُمْ مِنَ الْعِبَادِ فَرِيقٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌ فِي السَّعِيرِ
Abdullah bin Amr narrated: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came out to us with two books in hand. And he said: “Do you know what these two books are?” We said: “No, O Messenger of Allah! Unless you inform us.” He said about the one that was in his right hand: “This is a book from the Lord of the worlds, in it are the names of the people of Paradise, and the names of their fathers and their tribes. Then there is a summary at the end of them, there being no addition to them nor deduction from them forever.” Then he said about the one that was in his left: “This is a book from the Lord of the worlds, in it are the names of the people of the Fire and the names of their fathers and their tribes. Then there is a summary at the end of them, there being no addition to them nor deduction from them forever.” The Companions said: “So why work O Messenger of Allah! Since the matter is already decided?” He said: “Seek to do what is right and draw nearer, for indeed the inhabitant of Paradise shall have his work sealed off with the deeds of the people of Paradise, whichever deeds he did. And indeed the inhabitant of the Fire shall have his work sealed off with the deeds of the people of the Fire, whichever deeds he did.” Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) motioned with his hands, casting them down and said: “Your Lord finished with the slaves, a group in Paradise, and a group in the Blazing Fire.” (Jami al-Tirmidhi #2141)
When the matter has been concluded, Satan says to his followers: “Verily, Allah promised you the promise of truth, and I promised you but I betrayed you. And I had no authority over you except that I called upon you and you responded to me. So do not blame me but blame yourselves. I cannot be called to your aid nor can you be called to my aid. Indeed, I reject your association of me [with Allah] from before.” (Sura 14:22)
Like the example of Satan when he says to man: “Disbelieve!”, so when he disbelieves, he [Satan] says: “Indeed, I am disassociated from you. Indeed I fear Allah, Lord of the worlds.” (Sura 59:16)
These and other Verses of the Holy Quran prove that Satan has no independent power or authority. He is on a very tight leash and knows full well that his true Lord is Allah Most High, Whom he even fears. Zoroastrian or Magian dualism is diametrically opposed to the teachings of Islam. This does not mean that Satan acts on behalf of Allah, as is the belief of Judaism, and that he is actually an Angel or good. The Holy Quran is explicit in declaring Satan or the Devil evil, rejected and accursed for his pride and his waging of war against Allah Most High, a war he obviously cannot win.