Friday, 25 January 2019

Some Facts About Adhan and Iqama

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
والصلوة والسلام على رسوله الكريم
والعاقبة للمتقين
The Adhan, including the Iqama, is one of the salient features of Islam. Christians ring a bell as their call to worship while Jews blow the shofar (ram’s horn). Sayyidina Abi Huraira (radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sall Allahu alayhi wasallam) said:
الْجَرَسُ مَزَامِيرُ الشَّيْطَانِ
“The bells are the musical instruments of Satan”
(Sahih Muslim #5548)

From the Sunna practiced by the Ahnaf is to proclaim the Iqama with seventeen phrases, as proven from the Hadith of sayyidina Abi Mahdhura (radi Allahu anhu):

وَالإِقَامَةُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ حَىَّ عَلَى الصَّلاَةِ حَىَّ عَلَى الصَّلاَةِ حَىَّ عَلَى الْفَلاَحِ حَىَّ عَلَى الْفَلاَحِ قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلاَةُ قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلاَةُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ
(Sunan Abi Dawud #502)

It is an innovation to recite the salat (durud) upon the Prophet (sall Allahu alayhi wasallam) before giving the Adhan, as is the practice of the grave-worshiping Barelwi sect. However, it is from the Sunna to recite it after the Adhan, a Sunna that has been neglected by most Muslims:

إِذَا سَمِعْتُمُ الْمُؤَذِّنَ فَقُولُوا مِثْلَ مَا يَقُولُ ثُمَّ صَلُّوا عَلَىَّ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَىَّ صَلاَةً صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بِهَا عَشْرًا
“When you hear the Mu’wadhdhin repeat what he says, then invoke salat on me, for everyone who invokes salat on me will receive ten blessings from Allah”
(Sahih Muslim)
Thus there is no problem if the Mu’wadhdhin recites the Salat al-Ibrahimiyya on the loudspeaker after having proclaimed the Adhan, and likewise reciting the well-known Du’a:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِحَقِّ هَذِهِ الدَّعْوَةِ التَّامَّةِ ، وَالصَّلاةِ الْقَائِمَةِ آتِ مُحَمَّدًا الْوَسِيلَةَ وَالْفَضِيلَةَ ، وَابْعَثْهُ مَقَامًا مَحْمُودًا ، الَّذِي وَعَدْتَهُ إِنَّكَ لا تُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ
(Sunan al-Kubra lil-Bayhaqi)
With regard to adding phrases to the adhan for some particular purpose under special circumstances, we learn this was the way of the Prophet’s companions and the early Muslims (may Allah be pleased with them). For example, when the false prophet Aswad al-Ansi was killed by sayyidina Fayruz (radi Allahu anhu) and his friends, the Adhan for the obligatory Salat was given in which the Mu’wadhdhin proclaimed:

أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَأَنَّ عَبْهَلَةَ كَذَّابٌ
“I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah and that Abhala is a liar”
(Sahih Tarikh at-Tabari v.3 p.37):

 

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