بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
والصلاة والسلام على خاتم النبيين
وعلى آله واصحابه اجمعين
Among the Muslims there arose two deviated denominations concerning the subject of free will. The Mujbirah or Jabariyah believe that Allah is the doer of everything in truth, and man can only be said to commit his deeds metaphorically. This false doctrine not only absolves man from responsibility for either the goodness or evil of his deeds, it imputes evil deeds to Allah’s Person, such as the act of adultery (I seek refuge with Allah from such a heinous idea). On the other end of the spectrum are the Qadariyah. They believe man is the independent creator of his own deeds. They hold to this doctrine so as to justify the idea that man alone is to be held accountable for his deeds, good or bad, but consequently impugn the Lordship and Sovereignty of Allah in assigning a rival, independent creator to Him. This is a sort of dualism, which is why the Prophet (sall Allahu alaihi wasallam) reportedly prophecied the appearance of the Qadariyah and named them the “Magians of the Ummah”. Magians or Majus refer to the old, dualist religion of Iran, which believes in two divine beings that are independent of each other, “good” Ahura Mazda and “evil” Angra Mainyu. The false doctrine of the Qadariyah was inherited by two misguided sects, the Mu’tazilah and the Shi’ah, the latter persist and continue to uphold this doctrine.
But as for orthodox Islam, we believe that Allah Most High is the Creator of our deeds and acts, as the holy Quran says:
وَاللهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ
Allah created you and that which you do
So the false belief of the Qadariyah, Mu’tazilah and Shi’ah that man is the independent creator of his own deeds directly opposes the clear teaching of our Scripture. At the same time, orthodox Islam teaches that while Allah creates man’s acts, man earns and performs them of his own intention and volition. This is the doctrine of Kasb, that is, the earning of man’s deeds that are created for him on the basis of the condition of his heart and soul. So while Allah is the Creator of man’s deeds, He is not the doer or performer of those deeds, hence they cannot be ascribed to Him. That is because man does not have the capacity to create his own deeds, indeed, there is no creator in a true and independent sense apart from Allah Himself. In this way, orthodox Islam maintains the Lordship, Sovereignty and Omnipotence of Allah while also relegating responsibility of the good or evil of man’s acts to man alone.