بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ
وصلى الله على نبيه الكريم
Yet another proof for my thesis that the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم possessed dual roles of prophet and judge, is the event of the judgment on the treachery of Bani Quraizah:
أقبل وهو راكب على حمار قد وطَّؤوا له عليه، جعل الأوس يلوذون به ويقولون: يا سعد، إنهم مواليك، فأحسن فيهم. ويرققونه عليهم ويعطفونه، وهو ساكت لا يرد عليهم. فلما أكثروا عليه قال: لقد آن لسعد ألا تأخذه في الله لومة لائم. فعرفوا أنه غير مستبقيهم، فلما دنا من الخيمة التي فيها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: قوموا إلى سيدكم. فقام إليه المسلمون، فأنزلوه إعظاما وإكراما واحتراما له في محل ولايته، ليكون أنفذ لحكمه فيهم. فلما جلس قال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: إن هؤلاء وأشار إليهم قد نزلوا على حكمك، فاحكم فيهم بما شئت. قال: وحكمي نافذ عليهم قال:نعم. قال: وعلى مَنْ في هذه الخيمة قال:نعم. قال: وعلى مَنْ هاهنا. وأشار إلى الجانب الذي فيه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو معرض بوجهه عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إجلالا وإكرامًا وإعظامًا فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:نعم. فقال: إني أحكم أن تقتل مُقَاتلتهم، وتُسبْى ذريتهم وأموالهم. فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: لقد حكمت بحكم الله من فوق سبعة أرقعة
When he arrived, riding on a donkey that had been specially equipped for him to ride, some of the Aws began to urge him not to be too harsh, saying, “O Sa’d, they are your clients so be kind to them” trying to soften his heart. But he kept quiet and did not answer them. When they persisted in their request, he said, “Now it is time for Sa’d to make sure that no rebuke or censure will divert him from the path of Allah.” Then they knew that he would not let them live. When he reached the tent where the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم was, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Stand up for your leader”. So the Muslims stood up for him, and welcomed him with honor and respect as befitted his status and so that his judgment would have more impact. When he sat down, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “These people” and he pointed to them “have agreed to accept your judgment, so pass judgment on them as you wish.” Sa’d, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “My judgment will be carried out?” The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Yes.” He said, “and it will be carried out on those who are in this tent?” He صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “yes.” He said, “And on those who are on this side?” and he pointed towards the side where the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم was, but he did not look directly at the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم out of respect for him. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said to him: “Yes.” So Sa’d, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “My judgment is that their fighters should be killed and their children and wealth should be seized.” The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “You have judged according to the ruling of Allah from above the seven heavens.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir; v.6 p.398; Surah 33:26):
Those who claim the Prophet’s office of temporal authority and judgment was intrinsic to his Prophesy must answer how it was possible and permissible for the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم to temporarily suspend his prerogative to judge the matter of Bani Quraizah in favor of sayyidina Sa’d bin Mu’adh رضى الله عنه. This narration makes it quite plain that sayyidina Sa’d was to judge the Bani Quraizah independently, and that his judgment would be binding upon everyone, including the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم himself.