Thursday, 30 November 2017

Mawdudi: "Except for My Tiny Jama'at Rest of the Muslim World is Ignorant of Islam"

In the Name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful


Salutations of Peace and Blessings upon our Beloved Prophet and Master Muhammad and upon His Family and Progeny


In a previous entry I exposed Mawdudi's cynical view of the Muslim Umma, regarding whom he said: ''They cannot distinguish between Islam and non-Islam'' (Musalman aur Mojuda Siasi Kashmakash, p. 26). Mawdudi in fact considered himself and his small Jama'at as the only ones who truly understand the reality and spirit of Islam:

اور یہی جہالت ہم ایک نہایت قلیل جماعت کے سوا مشرق سے لے کر مغرب تک مسلمانوں میں عام دیکھ رہے ہیں، خواہ وہ ان پڑھ عوام ہوں، یا دستار بند علماء یا خرقہ پوش مشائخ، یا کالجوں اور یونیورٹیوں کے تعلیم یافتہ حضرات۔ ان سب کے خیالات اور طور طریقے ایک دوسرے بدرجہا مختلف ہیں، مگر اسلام کی حقیقت اور اس کی روح سے ناواقف ہونے میں یہ سب یکساں ہیں۔

''Except for an extremely small Jama'at, we see this ignorance widespread among the Muslims from East to West. Whether they are the illiterate masses, turbaned Ulama, patched-frock wearing (Sufi) Masha'ikh, or college or university educated gentlemen; their ideas and behavior may be different from each other, but they are all united in having no understanding of Islam's reality and its spirit.'' (Tafhimat; v. 1, p. 45)


These statements of Mawdudi reveal his exclusivist attitude and contempt for the general body of the Muslim Umma. This mass Tajhil of the Muslim Umma from the likes of Mawdudi and those affected by his Fikr, such as Syed Qutb is in fact what gave rise to the contemporary Fitna of mass Takfir (excommunication) of whole Muslim societies by the radical Jama'aat (groups). While it is certainly true that at present the majority of the Muslim Umma may be characterized as negligent in their duties to Allah, and as having nowhere near the level of faith and piety of previous generations of Muslims, there is a fine line between understanding this reality and making either Tajhil or worse, Takfir, of whole Muslim societies. Though Mawdudi has not explicitly made Takfir of the Muslim Umma, he accuses all of the Muslims, with the self-serving exception of his own Jama'at, of being totally ignorant of the reality of Islam. This is a dangerous view which logically leads to the attitude of Takfir and Khuruj.

Mawdudi's Deviant Concept of Worship

In the Name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful

Salutations of Peace and Blessings upon our Beloved Prophet and Master Muhammad and upon His Family and Progeny

Worship of One God (Elah) is the essence of Islam. Continuous, consistent, and sincere worship, such as offering Salat, praying (Du'a), reading the Qur'an, remembering Allah in one's heart (Dhikr), fasting (Siyam), undertaking a pilgrimage (Ziyara) to the Sacred Mosques, offering animal sacrifices (Qurban), spending charity (Sadaqa), and many other acts of worship are means through which a Muslim attains spiritual nearness to his Lord and Maker. It is also a means for purification of the soul and such acts of worship are done with the intention of gratifying Allah Most High. Worship is the path to salvation, as Allah says:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ۝

Verily, those who are too conceited to worship Me shall enter Hell in disgrace

(Sura 40: 60)

The idea that worship is not necessary, cloaked in a theological argument, has been put forward by a modern stream of Christianity known as Calvinism. The Calvinists and Protestants in general disdain the idea of worshiping God with the intention of seeking salvation, as their theology is that all one needs to obtain salvation is to have faith in Jesus Christ.

Islam too teaches the idea that salvation is contingent to faith, and that salvation is a result of God's Grace and Mercy, and not the efforts and acts of the human being. However, Islam differs from Protestantism and particularly Calvinism in that it teaches that any person who does not offer acts of worship dedicated to Allah out of pride and conceit is doomed to eternal damnation (burning in Hell).

In the world of Islam, the equivalent of the Protestant deviation in regard to the understanding of worship (Ebada) was manifested in the ideas or Fikr of Abul Alaa Mawdudi. I have discussed the perversions and misguidance of Mawdudi at length in this blog, particularly his novel idea that Din is synonymous with government, and that the moral reformation of humanity is not possible through mere preaching (Wa'z) but requires political power and full control of the State.

Mawdudi argued that worship is synonymous with obedience to God's commandments, an idea shared by other deviated individuals such as G. A. Parwez and Syed Masood Ahmed (B.Sc.) founder of the Kharijite Takfiri so-called Jama'at-ul-Muslimin. While obedience to Allah's commandments is certainly an example of worship, it is not the full meaning or expression of worship, otherwise the non-obligatory acts of devotion (Nawafil) through which a person attains extreme nearness to Allah and embarks upon the path of sainthood (Wilaya) could technically not be considered worship!

Mawdudi defines the acts of worship such as Salat, Hajj, and Siyam, as merely expressions of Ta'zim or outward respect and etiquette, but that the true and real worship is to obey the commandments of God. According to him, these ritual acts of worship are only meant to daily remind man of his duty to constantly obey God. For Mawdudi, the ritual acts of worship like prayer, pilgrimage, fasting, etc., are not worship of God in their own right, but serve only to train the worshiper to be accustomed to being dutiful to God and nurturing discipline within him in preparation for the real and true worship. Mawdudi declares that the true and real worship is Jihad, which he defines as a political struggle to establish an Islamic state on the Earth.

To illustrate the deviation of Mawdudi's attitude toward worship, and how he stripped the greatest symbol of Islam, the Salat, of its spiritual value and it being a means in its own right to nearness to and pleasing Allah, the reader need only read Mawdudi's parable where he compares Salat with military drills and police training:

Reference: Khutbat; p. 125

Tuesday, 28 November 2017

Camp of Faith in the Latter Days

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Peace and Salutations upon our Prophet and Master
Muhammad the Chosen One

 Muslims today, collectively speaking, are indisputably negligent in their observance of Islam in contrast to all the preceding generations. This reality was predicted by the Prophet (peace be upon him & his family) in several Hadith, and can even be inferred from the Qur’an al-Karim:

وَالسَّابِقُونَ السَّابِقُونَ ﴿١٠﴾ أُولَـٰئِكَ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ ﴿١١﴾ فِي جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ ﴿١٢﴾ ثُلَّةٌ مِّنَ الْأَوَّلِينَ ﴿١٣﴾ وَقَلِيلٌ مِّنَ الْآخِرِينَ

And the forerunners, the forerunners - Those are the ones brought near [to Allah] In the Gardens of Pleasure, A [large] company of the former peoples And a few of the later peoples

(Sura 56: 10-14)

Regarding the faithful Muslims of the latter-days, the Prophet (peace be upon him & his family) referred to them as Ghuraba (the estranged):

أَنّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : إِنَّ الدِّينَ لَيَأْرِزُ إِلَى الْحِجَازِ كَمَا تَأْرِزُ الْحَيَّةُ إِلَى جُحْرِهَا ، وَلَيَعْقِلَنَّ الدِّينُ مِنَ الْحِجَازِ مَعْقِلَ الْأُرْوِيَّةِ مِنْ رَأْسِ الْجَبَلِ ، إِنَّ الدِّينَ بَدَأَ غَرِيبًا وَيَرْجِعُ غَرِيبًا ، فَطُوبَى لِلْغُرَبَاءِ الَّذِينَ يُصْلِحُونَ مَا أَفْسَدَ النَّاسُ مِنْ بَعْدِي مِنْ سُنَّتِي

The Messenger of Allah said: Indeed the religion with creep into the Hijaz just like a snake creeps into its hole, and the religion will cling to the Hijaz just like the female mountain goat cling to the peak of a mountain. Indeed the religion began as something strange and it will return to being strange. So Tuba (glad-tidings) is for the strangers who correct what the people have corrupted from my Sunnah after me (Jami at-Tirmidhi)
The Prophet stated that the Faith would entrench itself between the Two Sacred Mosques of Mecca and Medina (Sahih Muslim):

إِنَّ الإِسْلاَمَ بَدَأَ غَرِيبًا وَسَيَعُودُ غَرِيبًا كَمَا بَدَأَ وَهُوَ يَأْرِزُ بَيْنَ الْمَسْجِدَيْنِ كَمَا تَأْرِزُ الْحَيَّةُ فِي جُحْرِهَا

Regarding the blessed Ghuraba, the Prophet stated that the majority of the people would oppose them, while only a few would follow them (Musnad Ahmad):

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ وَنَحْنُ عِنْدَهُ : طُوبَى لِلْغُرَبَاءِ ، فَقِيلَ : مَنْ الْغُرَبَاءُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ؟ قَالَ : أُنَاسٌ صَالِحُونَ ، فِي أُنَاسِ سُوءٍ كَثِيرٍ ، مَنْ يَعْصِيهِمْ أَكْثَرُ مِمَّنْ يُطِيعُهُمْ

The Prophet also stated that among the characteristics of the Ghuraba is that they would be alienated from their tribes (Sunan Ibn Maja):

قِيلَ وَمَنِ الْغُرَبَاءُ قَالَ النُّزَّاعُ مِنَ الْقَبَائِلِ

The modern-day Kharijites and Takfiris cite these and other Hadith to justify their position of separation and opposition to the general body of Muslims. They assert that the glad-tidings given to the Ghuraba of the latter-days applies to none other than them. But this argument could only be considered compelling if the modern Takfiri (Kharijite) current is the only one which could be described as estranged or opposed by the general body of Muslims. The truth is, however, that there are other groups or streams within the contemporary world of Islam which too are potential candidates for being identified as Ghuraba based on this particular characteristic. Among the most vociferous opponents of the modern Takfiris are the quietist and apolitical Salafis, whose nerve center is the Islamic University of Medina, and whose Ulama are mostly based in the Hijaz, between the Two Sacred Mosques. As has preceded from the Hadith of Tirmidhi, one of the salient features of the Ghuraba is that they are people who rectify what the people have corrupted of the Prophet’s Sunna. In short, the Ghuraba are in fact a religious revivalist and pietist tendency and not a Kharijite one. The Takifirs (Kharijites) are generally characterized as a tendency that view the broader Muslim Umma as being infidels and apostates, i.e., outside the very circle of Islam. Many of them are violent and see it as permissible to shed the blood of ordinary Muslims whom they regard as apostates or infidels, for example the recent massacre in the Sinai on 24 November 2017, when Takfiri radicals slaughtered over 300 Muslim worshipers in a mosque during the Friday service, including some 30 young children.

While it is certainly true that the Prophet never predicted any phenomenon that would occur in his Umma that could potentially justify mass-Takfir of it, let alone such violent and vicious behavior to the Muslims, it should be noted that in the latter days the Muslim Umma would fracture and become polarized into two camps:

يُصْبِحُ الرَّجُلُ فِيهَا مُؤْمِنًا وَيُمْسِي كَافِرًا حَتَّى يَصِيرَ النَّاسُ إِلَى فُسْطَاطَيْنِ فُسْطَاطِ إِيمَانٍ لَا نِفَاقَ فِيهِ وَفُسْطَاطِ نِفَاقٍ لَا إِيمَانَ فِيهِ فَإِذَا كَانَ ذَاكُمْ فَانْتَظِرُوا الدَّجَّالَ مِنْ يَوْمِهِ أَوْ مِنْ غَدِهِ

During it a man will be a believer in the morning and an infidel in the evening, so that the people will be in two camps: the camp of faith which will contain no hypocrisy, and the camp of hypocrisy which will contain no faith. When that happens, expect the Antichrist that day or the next. (Sunan Abi Dawud)

This fracture in the Umma will be complete at the emergence of the Antichrist (Dajjal). Until that happens, we continue to witness the polarization and fragmentation of the Umma into two camps, one characterized by faithfulness and the other characterized by hypocrisy. Yet, this does not justify mass-Takfir, since there is still a large middle ground in between with some fluidity. The Camp of Hypocrisy will only be clearly identified at the emergence of the cursed Dajjal, as they will be those who were from among this Umma that will follow and obey him. Nevertheless, this Hadith which describes the rupture within the Umma into two general tendencies, one towards Faith and the other towards Nifaq (hypocrisy) should be understood and digested as part of the contemporary Islamic narrative but without being related to the legal question of Takfir. For now, it is not a legal or jurisprudential issue in Islam so the question of Takfir of any society which claims to be Muslim does not arise. This phenomenon of polarization and bifurcation within the Umma should only reinforce the narrative of spiritual separation from corrupt mainstream society known as Hijra and Uzla, which I have written about at length here.

Monday, 27 November 2017

Prophet (SWS) Raised Up Among the Aakhareen (Part 2)

In the previous entry, I examined the Ayah of the Qur’an al-Karim:

وَآخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
And also among the others who have not met them [Ummiyyin]. And He [Allah] is the Mighty, the Wise.
(Sura 62: 3)

and stated that the inclusion of the Waw al-‘Aatifa, a prefixed conjunction (a particle which connects two words, phrases, or clauses together) yields the meaning that Allah Most High has sent His Messenger Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) with two sendings, one to the Ummiyyin and the second to the Aakharin. The ignorant ones argue that the implication of this Verse is only that the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has been sent for everyone, both the Ummiyyin and the Aakharin. They therefore deny our reading and understanding that two actual sendings are spoken of in this Qur’anic passage. In support of my thesis that the grammatical structure of the Ayah proves two sendings of the same Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) I shall present references from the classical books of Tafsir:

{ وَءاخَرِينَ } عطف على الأميين. يعني بعث في آخرين منهم

Source: Tafsir al-Kabir (Fakhr al-Din al-Razi); v. 30, p. 4

يقول تعالى ذكره: وهو الذي بعث في الأميين رسولا منهم، وفي آخرين منهم لما يلحقوا بهم فآخرون في موضع خفض عطفاً على الأميين

Source: Tafsir Ibn Jarir al-Tabari

*Note: The word minhum occurring in both Verses 2 and 3 indicate that the same Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is sent or raised up among the Ummiyyin and among the Aakharin. In other words, just as the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was raised up, in his essence, among the illiterate Arabs, likewise, he is to be raised up among the Aakharin, whom most of the exegetes identify as the Ajam (non-Arabs) of the latter days, a view reinforced by the Hadith of the Pleiades cited in the previous entry.

Regarding minhum, Imam al-Shawkani writes in his commentary of this passage:

{ مِنْهُمْ }: من أنفسهم، ومن جنسهم، ومن جملتهم
“From among them” from among themselves [anfusuhum], and from among their genus [jinsuhum], and from among their allocation [jumlatuhum].

{ وَءاخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ } معطوف على الأميين أي: بعث في الأميين، وبعث في آخرين منهم

Source: Fath al-Qadir (Shawkani), p. 1490

قوله تعالى: { وَآخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ } هو عطف على «الأمِّيين» أي بعث في الأميّين وبعث في آخرين منهم

Source: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

وبعث محمداً في آخرين منهم

“And Muhammad was sent in the Aakharin, among them”

Source: Zad al-Masir (Ibn al-Jawzi), p. 1433

{ وَءاخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ } مجرور معطوف على { ٱلأَمّيّينَ } يعني أنه بعثه في الأميين الذين على عهده وفي آخرين من الأميين

Source: Tafsir al-Nasafi; v.3 p.470

*Note: Although Imam al-Nasafi states here that the second Ba’th (‘sending’) of the Prophet (peace be upon him) was among the latter ones from among the Ummiyyin, the majority of exegetes conclude that the Aakharin are separated from the Ummiyyin by time and refer to the Ajam (non-Arabs). Nevertheless, Imam al-Nasafi has based his reasoning on the grammatical structure of the Verse hence it cannot be denied that two distinct sendings of the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) are proven from this Qur’anic passage.

In conclusion, this passage of the Qur’an al-Karim puts forward a critical idea; the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) shall be sent and raised up among the Aakharin also, like he was raised up and sent among the Ummiyyin some fifteen centuries ago. But since the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) has passed away and is no more in this world, how can he be sent and raised up among the Aakharin of the latter-days. As was suggested in the previous entry where I cited the Hadith of the Pleaides, the second advent of the Prophet (peace be upon him) shall be fulfilled in the emergence of a pious, saintly Believer from among the people of Salman the Persian. But this person has been identified with the Person of sayyidina Muhammad Rasul Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam), and this is to be understood through the Sufi concepts of Buruz and Fana fil Rasul which have been expounded appropriately upon in this blog.

And Allah knows best!

Saturday, 18 November 2017

Prophet (SWS) Raised Up Among the Akhareen (Sura 62:3)

Now coming to the Qur’an al-Karim, I would like to draw the readers’ attention to Allah’s statement that He has sent a Messenger to two different people:

هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

He is the One [Allah] Who sent in the Ummiyyeen [illiterate Arabs] a Messenger [Muhammad] among them, to recite upon them His [Allah’s] Signs, to purify them, and to teach them the Book and the Wisdom. And they were, before this, manifestly astray.
وَآخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
And [also] among the Aakhareen [others] who have not [yet] met them [Ummiyyin]. And He [Allah] is the Mighty, the Wise.
(Sura 62: 2–3)
The second Verse I have quoted is a continuation of what is being stated in the first, namely, that Allah has sent a Messenger among the Ummiyyeen, and He has sent the same Messenger among the Akhareen.

This is why the second Verse begins with the letter ‘Waw’, and it is an example of al-Waw Aatifa, a prefixed conjunction (a particle which connects two words, phrases, or clauses together).

Hence, the sending of the Messenger is being connected to what is mentioned after the prefixed conjunction, namely, the Akhareen. Allah says that among them this same Messenger [Muhammad] peace be upon him is to be sent.
Furthermore it is stated that the Akhareen are others whom the Ummiyyeen [illiterate Arabs among whom the Prophet was raised] haven’t met. The reason these two groups have not met each other is because they are separated by time.

The exegetes understand ‘Akhareen’ (others) to be a reference to the Ajam (non-Arabs). Now it is obvious that the Prophet (peace be upon him), who passed away some 15 centuries ago, never appeared among such ‘Akhareen’, yet the grammatical structure of this Verse is such that one has to understand that two sendings of the same Messenger are being described, one among the Ummiyyeen and another among the Akhareen.

A clue to solving this apparent paradox of how the same Messenger can be raised up among two different groups of people who have never met each other, due to the separation in time, can be found in the Prophet’s explanation of this Verse in an authentic Hadith:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، رضى الله عنه قَالَ كُنَّا جُلُوسًا عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَأُنْزِلَتْ عَلَيْهِ سُورَةُ الْجُمُعَةِ ‏{‏وَآخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ‏}‏ قَالَ قُلْتُ مَنْ هُمْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَلَمْ يُرَاجِعْهُ حَتَّى سَأَلَ ثَلاَثًا، وَفِينَا سَلْمَانُ الْفَارِسِيُّ، وَضَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَدَهُ عَلَى سَلْمَانَ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ لَوْ كَانَ الإِيمَانُ عِنْدَ الثُّرَيَّا لَنَالَهُ رِجَالٌ ـ أَوْ رَجُلٌ ـ مِنْ هَؤُلاَءِ

Narrated Abu Huraira: While we were sitting with the Prophet () Surat Al-Jumu'a was revealed to him, and when the Verse, "And He (Allah) has sent him (Muhammad) also to other (Muslims).....' (62.3) was recited by the Prophet, I said, "Who are they, O Allah's Messenger ()?" The Prophet () did not reply till I repeated my question thrice. At that time, Salman Al-Farisi was with us. So Allah's Messenger () put his hand on Salman, saying, "If Faith were at (the place of) Ath-Thuraiya (Pleiades), even then (some men or a man from these people (i.e. Salman's folk) would attain it." (Bukhari Sharif)

Some versions of this Hadith mention that men (plural) will reach it (faith) but others mention a single man. The point is, however, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) by mentioning a single man, was not referring to the Akhareen necessarily, but referring to the sending of Him to be raised among the Akhareen. Although only a single Messenger is mentioned as being raised up among two different groups, the Prophet (peace be upon him) has apparently described his ‘second raising’ among the Akhareen as being fulfilled in the appearance of a man from the people of Salman al-Farisi (R.A), who shall appear at a time when the Earth has empty of Faith and Faith has gone up to be suspended in the Stars.

Khwaja Ghulam Farid: Concept of Buruz

The concept of Burûz in Sufism is meant to describe the phenomenon of a soul attaining Faid from another soul. The soul which is manifesting is called Mabrûz Fîh, and that which is manifested is called Bâriz. Khwaja Ghulam Farid of Chachran, while explaining the concept of Buruz and its difference from Tanasukh (reincarnation), mentioned the saying of Ibn Arabi that Prophet Elias was in fact a Buruz of the earlier Prophet Idris. Both Prophets are mentioned in the Qur’an, though some exegetes have identified them as one and the same person. For example, it is mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhari the view of both Ibn Mas’ud and Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu anhuma):

يُذْكَرُ عَنْ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّ إِلْيَاسَ هُوَ إِدْرِيسُ

Other exegetes such as Qatada, Muhammad b. Ishaq, and Dahhak believed likewise (Tafsir Ibn Kathir).

Regarding Buruz, Khwaja Ghulam Farid says:

اور بروز یہ ہے کہ ایک روح دوسرے اکمل روح سے فیضان حاصل کرتی ہے جب اس پر تجلّیات کا فیضان ہوتا ہے تو وہ اس کا مظہر بن جاتی ہے اور کہتی ہے کہ میں وہ ہوں یعنی دونوں میں فرق نہیں رہتا

“Burooz is that a soul gains benefit from another one which is perfect. When it receives the benefit of Divine illumination, it becomes its manifestation, and says: I am that one, that is, no difference remains between the two.”

Reference: Isharat-i-Faridi (Maqabis-ul-Majalis), p. 418


Friday, 17 November 2017

Sh. Abdul Qadir Jilani (RA): "Essence of Prophethood Remains Till Judgment Day"

Shaikh Abdul Qadir al-Jilani (rahimahullah) apparently agreed with our view that while Nubuwwa has formally been sealed, its essence remains among the Umma:
 نبوت کی ظاہری صورت اٹھ گئی ہے مگر معنا قیامت تک کے لیے باقی ہے۔ ورنہ زمین پر چالیس ابدال رہتے۔ ان میں سے بعض میں نبوت کے معنے پاۓ جاتے ہیں۔ جن کا دل ایسا ہے جیسا کسی نبی کا۔ اور بعض خدا اور رسولوں کے خلیفہ ہیں۔
“Prophethood in its outward sense has gone, but in terms of its essence it will continue till the Day of Judgment. Otherwise, why should there always be forty saints on the earth? Aspects of prophethood are to be found in some of them, whose hearts are like those of prophets. From among them are khalifas of God and of His messengers.”
Reference: Faiz-e-Subhani, pp. 121 – 122


Thursday, 16 November 2017

Continuation of Ranks of Nadhir and Siddiq

Although the rank of Nubuwwa (prophethood) has been sealed, one of its elements, namely the station of Indhar or Tahdhir remains. That is the rank of being a Nadhir (warner, harbinger, oracle), a divinely-appointed status.

Likewise, the rank of al-Sidq, or that of being a Siddiq, is the highest station after Nubuwwa itself. The Holy Qur’an describes Mary mother of Jesus as having been granted this rank (Sura 5: 75). It too is one of the elements of Nubuwwa, which is why Prophets like Idris, Abraham and Joseph are described as being Siddiq in the Holy Qur’an. From this Umma, the most prominent example of a Siddiq is the Prophet's most senior disciple and his first successor, sayyidina Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him).

Regarding the description of these ranks and the possibility of attaining them, Shaikh Abdul Qadir al-Jilani (rahimahullah) said:

والرجل الرابع : المدعو في الملكوت بالعظيم كما جاء في الحديث عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : (من تعلم ، وعلم ، وعمل ، دعي في الملكوت عظيماً). وهو العالم بالله عزَّ وجلَّ وآياته، استودع الله عزَّ وجلَّ قلبه غرائب علمه، وأطلعه على أسرار طواها عن غيره، واصطفاه واجتباه وجذبه إليه ورقاه، وإلى باب قربه هداه، وشرح صدره لقبول تلك الأسرار والعلوم، وجعله جهبذا وداعياً للعباد ونذيرا لهم وحجة فيهم، هادياً مهدياً شافعاً مشفعاً صادقاً صديقاً، بدلاً لرسله وأنبيائه عليهم صلواته وسلامه وتحياته وبركاته. فهذه هي الغاية القصوى في بني آدم، لا منزلة فوق منزلته إلا النبوّة، فعليك به وأحذر أن تخالفه وتنافره وتجانبه وتعاديه وتترك القبول منه والرجوع إلى نصيحته وقوله، فإن السلامة فيما يقول عنده، والهلاك والضلال عند غيره إلا من يوفقه الله عزَّ وجلَّ ويمده بالسداد والرحمة

Translation: The fourth kind of man is one who is invited to the world invisible, clothed in dignity, as it is related in the tradition: “Whoever learns and acts upon his learning and imparts it to others is invited to the world invisible and made great.” Such a man is possessed of the knowledge of God and His sign and his heart is made the repository of the rare things of His knowledge and He intimates to him such secrets as He has kept hidden from others, and He has selected him and drawn him towards Himself, and guided him and raised him towards Himself, and expanded his heart for the acceptance of these secrets and points of knowledge, and made him a worker in His cause and are inviter of God’s servants to the path of virtue, and a warner against the chastisement of evil deeds [Nadheer] and an argument of God in their midst, a guide and a rightly-guided man, an intercessor and one whose intercession has been accepted, a truthful man and one who verifies the truth of others [Siddeeq], a deputy of God’s prophets and messengers, may the blessings of God be on them. So this man is the end and culminating point of mankind and there is no station above this, except that of prophethood. It is your duty to beware that you do not oppose such a man and be averse to him and avoid accepting him; and be attentive towards what he says and admonishes. So, verily, safety lies in what such a man says and also in his company, and destruction and misguidance be in what is besides him; except such men to whom God gives power and assistance towards truth and mercy.
Reference: Futuh-al-Ghaib p.80 (Discourse #33)


Sunday, 5 November 2017

Inspiration of Quraanic Verses to Abdullah Ghaznawi (Salafi Scholar)

The great scholar and saint of the monotheists and Ahlul Hadith, Abdullah Ghaznawi (1811-1879) (whose biography is given on the Salafi ‘Umm-Ul-Qura Publications’ website) was apparently inspired with Verses of the Holy Qur’an. For example, his son, Abdul Jabbar Ghaznawi, writes in his biography that the Ayah of the Holy Qur’an concerning the Messiah of Nazareth was inspired to Abdullah Ghaznawi about himself:


إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا عَبْدٌ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَيْهِ

He was not but a servant upon whom We bestowed favor

(Sura 43:59)

Reference: Sawaneh Umri Maulawi Abdullah Ghaznawi, p.9


In a previous entry, I quoted from the same biography (Abdul Jabbar Ghaznawi) who answered the objection about the revelation of a Quraanic Ayah concerning a Prophet or where a specific Prophet is being addressed being revealed or inspired to a saint of this Umma.

Ahlul Hadith Scholar: Ram, Laxman, Krisna, Zoroaster, Confucius, Buddha, Socrates, Pythagorus were Prophets

Scholar of the Ahlul Hadith sect of the Indian subcontinent, Allama Wahid-uz-Zaman of Hyderabad, who is best known for having translated the Sihhah us Sita into Urdu, wrote that Ram, Laxman, Krisna, Zoroaster, Confucius, Buddha, Socrates and Pythagorus were all prophets and messengers of Allah:


وعرف بالتواتر بين قوم ولو كفار انهم كانوا انبياء صلحاء كرامچندر ولچهمن وكشن جى بين الهند وزراتشت بين الفرس وكنفسيوس وبدها بين اهل الصين وجاپان وسقراط وفيثاغورس بين اهل اليونان بل يجب علينا ان نقول آمنا بجميع انبياء ورسل لا نفرق بين احد منهم


Reference: Hadiyatul Mahdi p.85

Saturday, 4 November 2017

Prophet (SWS) Did not Know Identity of Some Hypocrites (Sura 9:101)

Allah Most High says:

وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُونَ ۖ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ ۖ مَرَدُوا عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ ۖ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٍ

And among those around you of the bedouins are hypocrites, and also from the people of Madinah. They have become accustomed to hypocrisy. You, [O My Prophet], do not know them, but We know them. We will punish them twice; then they will be returned to a great punishment.

(Sura 9: 101)

It has been suggested by some that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him & his family) was later informed of the identity of the hypocrites described in this Ayah.

The truth is the Prophet (peace be upon him) was informed of the identity of some hypocrites, but certainly not all of them, as that would contravene the statement made in this Ayah, as the exegete Ibn Kathir has explained:

أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم أعلم حذيفة بأعيان أربعة عشر أو خمسة عشر منافقاً، وهذا تخصيص لا يقتضي أنه اطلع على أسمائهم وأعيانهم كلهم، والله أعلم

The Prophet (peace be upon him) informed Hudhayfah of the names of fourteen or fifteen hypocrites. This knowledge is specific in this case, not that he was informed of all their names, and Allah knows best.

Reference: Tafsir Ibn Kathir; v.4 p.204


Similarly, both Zamakhshari and Nasafi mention in their commentaries:

{ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ } أي لا يعلمهم إلاّ الله، ولا يطلع على سرهم غيره، لأنهم يبطنون الكفر في سويداوات قلوبهم إبطاناً، ويبرزون لك ظاهراً كظاهر المخلصين من المؤمنين

(We know them) that is, no one knows them except Allah, nor is anyone else informed of their secret, because they bury disbelief in the depth of their hearts but appear to you, apparently, as manifestly sincere people from among the Believers.

Reference: Tafsir al-Kashshaf p.447; Tafsir al-Nasafi p.442

Concerning some of the hypocrites about whom the Prophet (peace be upon him) was informed of, it is narrated from Qays b. Ubad:

قُلْتُ لِعَمَّارٍ أَرَأَيْتُمْ صَنِيعَكُمْ هَذَا الَّذِي صَنَعْتُمْ فِي أَمْرِ عَلِيٍّ أَرَأْيًا رَأَيْتُمُوهُ أَوْ شَيْئًا عَهِدَهُ إِلَيْكُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ مَا عَهِدَ إِلَيْنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَيْئًا لَمْ يَعْهَدْهُ إِلَى النَّاسِ كَافَّةً وَلَكِنْ حُذَيْفَةُ أَخْبَرَنِي عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي أَصْحَابِي اثْنَا عَشَرَ مُنَافِقًا فِيهِمْ ثَمَانِيَةٌ لاَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ حَتَّى يَلِجَ الْجَمَلُ فِي سَمِّ الْخِيَاطِ ثَمَانِيَةٌ مِنْهُمْ تَكْفِيكَهُمُ الدُّبَيْلَةُ ‏

I said to Ammar: What is your opinion about that which you have done in case (of your siding with Ali b. Abi Talib): Is it your personal opinion or something you got from Allah‘s Messenger ()? Ammar said: We have got nothing from Allah's Messenger () which people at large did not get, but Hudhaifa told me that Allah‘s Apostle () had especially told him that amongst his Companions there would be twelve hypocrites out of whom eight would not get into Paradise until a camel would be able to pass through the eye of the needle. The ulcer would be itself sufficient (to kill) eight. (Sahih Muslim) 

The context of this Hadith points to the fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was informed of the identity of hypocrites who ended up being opposed to sayyidina Ali b. Abi Talib (radi Allahu anhu), which is why Ammar b. Yasir (radi Allahu anhu) was determined to side with Amir-ul-Mu’minin (radi Allahu anhu).

Sayyidatuna Aishah (RA): Say He is Seal of Prophets But Don't Say 'No Prophet After Him'

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