Monday, 30 April 2018

Yunusiya Heresy: "Angels Carry God"

The Twelver Shi’a praise the narrator Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman al-Qummi, who died in the early 9th century CE, as he was apparently one of the companions of Imams Musa al-Kadim and Ali al-Rida and conveyed narrations from both of them. However, the Sunni scholar and heresiographer Ibn Abd al-Karim al-Shahrastani in his al-Milal wal-Nihal mentioned the fact that Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman put forward a heresy that the Hamalat al-Arsh (Angels bearing the Throne of God) are in fact carrying the Holy Person of Allah Himself, and groan from under the weight of His magnitude. Another heresiographer, Abu Mansur Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi, in his al-Farq bayn al-Firaq likewise mentions the Yunusiya subsect attributed to Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman al-Qummi, and describes his heresy: “He claimed that Allah is borne by the bearers of his throne, through He is stronger than they; just as the legs of the chair bear the chair although the chair is stronger than they.” Apparently, Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman quoted the Ayah of the Qur’an as his proof:
وَالْمَلَكُ عَلَىٰ أَرْجَائِهَا ۚ وَيَحْمِلُ عَرْشَ رَبِّكَ فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ ثَمَانِيَةٌ
And the Angels are at its edges. And they will bear the throne of your Lord above them, that day, eight [of them].
(Sura 69: 17)
But as al-Baghdadi points out, this Ayah only speaks of the Angels carrying the Throne, and not carrying Allah Himself. But by qualifying that Allah, despite being carried by eight Angels below Him, is nevertheless stronger than them, Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman avoided falling into outright Kufr and Ilhad in this matter, though he was still a misguided innovator for having introduced this belief hitherto unheard of among the Muslims.

Critical Issues Pertaining to the Deceased Corpse

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

والعاقبة للمتقين

It is from the Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) to perform Ghusl after washing a corpse, and to perform Wudu after coming into contact with a corpse, including carrying it. The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever washes a deceased person, let him perform Ghusl and whoever carries him, let him perform Wudu.” (Sunan Abi Dawud #3161) and it was narrated by sayyida Aisha (Radi Allahu anha) that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) used to perform Ghusl for four reasons, among them, after having washed a corpse (ibid, #3160). The reason for this may be understood from the fact that in the Hanafi school a corpse is Najis (impure) until it is washed. The Imamiya Shi’a have a similar view. Likewise, in Judaism there is the law of Tumat Met or the defilement that occurs when someone comes in contact with a corpse or human remains. Although most of the Fuqaha hold that Ghusl is not mandated but at the most only recommended after washing a corpse, and likewise Wudu is not mandated nor is it nullified through Mass al-Mayyit, the wording of the first Hadith I quoted apparently indicates otherwise.

Another critical issue is the imperative for Muslims to be be buried in a separate cemetery, and that Muslims and non-Muslims are not buried in the same cemetery. This is an example of an issue whose ruling is not derived from a khabr but from Amal at-Tawatur of the Muslim Umma from generation to generation going back to the time of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and his Companions (Radi Allahu anhum). Some Muslims who live in non-Muslim majority societies are tragically negligent of this critical Islamic law. They are in fact jeopardizing their position on Judgment Day by preferring to be buried alongside disbelievers, as perhaps they will be raised up alongside them and share their unenviable fate. The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) told the Bedouin whose father went to Hell:

حَيْثُمَا مَرَرْتَ بِقَبْرِ كافر فَبَشِّرْهُ بِالنَّارِ

“Whenever you pass by the grave of a disbeliever, give him the tidings of Hell.” (al-Mu’jam al-Kabir of al-Tabarani)

Finally, there is the vital issue for Muslims of burying their dead with haste. This is another issue that Muslims have become negligent of, especially those who live in the West, where the coroner may release the corpse of a Muslim after an unacceptable delay. Steps must be taken by our community to address this problem.

Tuesday, 24 April 2018

Movement of Juhayman and the Ikhwan (1979)

Juhayman al-Utaybi (rahimahullah) and his brother-in-law Muhammad b. Abd Allah al-Qahtani (rahimahullah) led an armed uprising in 1979 and famously seized control, temporarily, of the Sacred Mosque in Mecca. The Juhaymaniyun can be excused for sincerely believing that Juhayman’s brother-in-law was the expected Mahdi, because he fulfilled so many of the signs and characteristics of the Mahdi that even some of the top Ulama of Saudi Arabia were confused as to his affair. In hindsight, it is easy to say that Juhayman and his group were severely mistaken and committed a sin in doing what they did with regard to seizing the Sacred Mosque and the subsequent spilling of blood. However, the actions of the Saudi regime were equally if not more sinful during that great tribulation. The Jama’at al-Salafiya al-Muhtasiba, established under the supervision of the knowledgable grand mufti, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz bin Baz, and later the Ikhwan of Juhayman, were sincere and pure in their religious activities and ideology. At the time, Saudi Arabia was heading toward unbridled modernism and gradual Westernization. It was a consequence of the activity of Juhayman’s Ikhwan in 1979 that the Saudi regime was forced to slam the brakes on the project of Westernization/modernization. Only recently, with the rise of the satanic “crown prince” Ibn Salman (known as MBS) and his impure Vision 2030, has Saudi Arabia reversed course once again and is racing toward the gates of Hell. It was in anticipation of this kind of filthy devil (MBS) that Juhayman and his Ikhwan rose up in the late 1970s, with apocalyptic fervor and utmost devotion to Allah, in protest against the corruption of society and the wrongheaded policy of modernity and Westoxification. The Mukhlisin of today have a critical lesson to learn from the movement of Juhayman now that the Saudis have finally dropped the pretense of any loyalty to Islam and exposed the ugliness that was previously hidden behind a superficial mask.

Friday, 13 April 2018

Iqbal and Honor of Country

بسم الله الرحمـن الرحيم

والعاقبة للمتقين

The cancer of nationalism, both in its civic and ethnic forms, is literally tearing the Muslim world apart. The number of ethnic based separatist insurgencies presently being waged in our civilization certainly eclipses those of both the non-Muslim West and East. Consider the Kurdish and Baloch separatist movements, both unmistakably Marxist and radically secular. Iqbal, in his pitiful attempt to apologize for the kind of ethnic nationalism and authoritarian secularism unleashed by Mustafa Kemal of Turkey, claimed: “his Pan-Turanianism is only a political retort to Pan-Slavonism, or Pan-Germanism or Pan-Anglo-Saxonism.” (Islam and Ahmadism pp. 51-52) For all the hype about Iqbal being some kind of exceptional visionary, he obviously lacked the foresight to realize that whether or not Kemal’s own nationalism was merely a “political retort”, the present day ethnic separatism of the Kurds is certainly a reaction to Kemalist Turkey’s ideology and harsh policies. Likewise, the Kurds of Iraq and Syria, presently waging armed struggles for a “Kurdistan” is a phenomenon that can reasonably be said to be a reaction to the Pan-Arabism and Baathism of the Saddam and Assad regimes. Undoubtedly, it was Kemal who opened this Pandora’s Box. Next, Iqbal alleges: “Nationalism in the sense of love of one’s country and even readiness to die for its honour is a part of the Muslims’ faith” (p. 52). The truth is that there is absolutely no part of the Islamic faith which enjoins Believers to die for the honor of their country. Rather, such is condemned as Jahiliya “barbaric ignorance”. True, the Prophet (peace be upon him) highlighted the necessity of protecting life, property and honor, but the concept of a country possessing its own honor which must be protected and faught for is alien to our Religion. One wanders what Iqbal thought of the Sassanid soldiers who faught for the “honor” of Iran against the foreign Arabs who conquered and ruled them in the name of Islam. It is not difficult to see how this notion of dying for the honor of one’s country, which is fundamentally different from the virtuous readiness to die for one’s own personal honor and property, is in fact a kind of idolatry. It is impossible to be simultaneously loyal to both God and country. One has to be subordinated to the other, but when the question of fighting to the death arises in connection to this kind of metaphysical loyalty, it is clear that what one fights and dies for is ultimately his supreme object of loyalty and allegiance.

Virtue of Polygamy

بسم الله الرحمـن الرحيم

والعاقبة للمتقين
It is quite ironic that in some non-Muslim countries like India, Sri Lanka and the Philippines, Muslims are permitted by law to practice polygamy, whereas there are several so-called Muslim countries in which polygamy is criminalized. In a previous entry I explained that declaring something Haram which Allah Most High has declared Halal is not only apostasy from Islam but also a form of Shirk. In the Quraan al-Karim, Allah tells men to marry two, three or four women that seem suitable to them. Only if one is fearful that he cannot be just to his multiple wives is dispensation given for him to settle for a single wife (Sura 4: 3). In other words, the default is for believing Muslim men to have multiple wives, at least two and a maximum of four, and the exception is to have only one wife. Today it is certainly true that the vast majority of Muslim men aren’t polygamists. However, those who are able to should definitely make an effort to marry multiple women with the intention of emulating the blessed Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him & his family), who said:

تَزَوَّجْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ أَكْثَرُهَا نِسَاءً

“Marry, for indeed the best of this Umma are those who have many women”

(Musnad Ahmad)
Tragically, due to the toxic influence of Western/European values, modernism and feminism, the Muslim world has largely abandoned the virtuous practice of polygamy. In many “Muslim” countries (Tunisia, Turkey, Albania, Bosnia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan) polygamy is even criminalized!
Now there are many practical benefits to polygamy. It is generally known that there is usually a slight imbalance in the sex ratio, with more women than men on average. Men tend to die earlier than women, both due to natural and unnatural causes, such as war. Furthermore, many women are widowed or divorced and find it difficult to remarry, especially in societies where polygamy is considered taboo. Islam has emphasized polygamy to counter the evil of monasticism that is associated with Christianity and other false religions like Hinduism and Buddhism. Allah Most High has made the ancient patriarchs and prophets as the models of virtue and family life for the Believers to emulate. Those great men were not celibate monks living in cold cells, but instead had fulfilling, family lives as shepherds, marrying women and having an abundance of children. Indeed, Islam reveals that it is innate for man to have multiple women, and this is reflected in the fact that the believing men will have multiple consorts in the world to come, in Janna.

Abraham's Father Azar (Sura 6:74)

بسم الله الرحمـن الرحيم

والعاقبة للمتقين

It is written in the Quraan:

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ آزَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَامًا آلِهَةً ۖ إِنِّي أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ۞

And when said Abraham to his father Azar, “Do you take idols as gods? Indeed, I see you and your people in error manifest.”

(Sura 6: 74)
The fact that the Quraan apparently says that the great patriarch Abraham’s father was an idolater is not palpable to many Muslims. Those of the Barelwi sect, for example, claim that Abraham’s father was a true believer and unitarian. They argue that the individual named Azar mentioned in this Ayah was not Abraham’s father but rather his uncle. The word Ab can also refer to an uncle and does not necessarily always mean father. An example of this, from the Quraan itself, is when the sons of Jacob refer to Ishmael as being one from among his Aabaa or “fathers” (Sura 2: 133), while Ishmael was Jacob’s paternal uncle and not his father. Another argument is that in the Torah Abraham’s father is named Terah and not Azar (Genesis 11: 26). However, the Barelwis and others who make this weak argument fail to realize that the Hebrew Bible itself declares Abraham’s father – Terah – as having been an idolater: Joshua said to all the people, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: ‘Long ago your ancestors, including Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor, lived beyond the Euphrates River and worshiped other gods.” (Joshua 24: 2) The Talmud too confirms the fact that Abraham’s father was an idolater, who use to make and sell idols. As for the name of Abraham’s father, Allah Most High refers to him as “Azar” but it is certainly possible that this was his nickname and does not negate the fact that his given name was Terah. The orientalist George Sale, in his commentary of the Koran, wrote: “It may be observed that Abraham’s father is also called Zarah in the Talmud, and Athar by Eusebius.”

Israfil Associated with Prophet Muhammad for 3 Years before Gabriel

 بسم الله الرحمـن الرحيم

والعاقبة للمتقين

Angel Michael (peace be upon him) has the honor of being mentioned by name in the Quran al-Hakim, where Allah Most High condemns the “enemies” of His Angels and Apostles, particularly Gabriel and Michael (Sura 2: 98). Although Angel Gabriel is more frequently mentioned in Islamic texts, being associated with the revelation of the Quran to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him & his family), and therefore there are many more reported narrations concerning the Angel Gabriel, it should be known that the Angel Michael likewise used to descend upon the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and there are several authentic Hadith which establish this fact. The third of the three great Archangels is Angel Israfil. Although not mentioned by name in the Quran, it is generally believed that Israfil is the Angel who will blow the Sur (horn) on Judgment Day. I should, however, point out that I have not come across any authentic Hadith, with a sound sanad going back to the Prophet (peace be upon him), that identifies the Angel of the Horn as Israfil. What is authentically established is that the Prophet (peace be upon him) invoked Allah by calling Him:
رَبَّ جِبْرَائِيلَ وَمِيكَائِيلَ وَإِسْرَافِيلَ
“Lord of Gabriel, Michael and Israfil” (Sahih Muslim)
While traditionally many Muslims identify and name the Angel of the Horn as Israfil, just as they identify and name Azrael as the Angel of Death, I have come across some other information which may question this tradition. Some Salafis object to naming the Angel of Death “Azrael” despite it being a longstanding tradition in the Muslim Umma on the basis that there isn’t a single authentic Hadith where the name Azrael is mentioned on the tongue of the beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Yet these same Salafis insist that Israfil is the name of the Angel of the Horn. For example, Umar al-Ashqar writes: “Another of the angels is Israafeel, who will blow the Trumpet.” (The World of the Noble Angels p. 31) and on Islam Q&A under the supervision of Saalih al-Munajjid: “With regard to the one who will blow into it, it is well known that he is Israafeel (peace be upon him). Some of the scholars narrated that there is concensus on this, and it is stated clearly in some ahaadeeth.” But the fact of the matter is that Umar al-Ashqar didn’t cite any actual text of a Hadith to this effect.
Regarding the Angel Israfil, Imam Ibn Jarir al-Tabari mentions in his Tarikh some narrations from Imam Aamir b. Sharahil al-ShaabiRA that this Angel was “associated” with the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) for three years that preceded the coming down of Gabriel with the Quran:
حَدَّثَنِي الْحَارِثُ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ سَعْدٍ ، قَالَ : أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُمَرَ الْوَاقِدِيُّ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا الثَّوْرِيُّ ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبِي خَالِدٍ ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ ، قَالَ : وَحَدَّثَنَا ، إِمْلاءً مِنْ لَفْظِهِ ، مَنْصُورٌ ، عَنِ الأَشْعَثِ ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ ، قَالَ : قُرِنَ إِسْرَافِيلُ بِنُبُوَّةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، ثَلاثَ سِنِينَ ، يَسْمَعُ حِسَّهُ وَلا يَرَى شَخْصَهُ.
ثُمَّ كَانَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ
Al-Harith – Ibn Sa’d – Muhammad b. Umar al-Waqidi – al-Thawri – Isma’il b. Abi Khalid – al-Sha’bi: He (al-Waqidi) also said that he had this from al-Mansur by dictation – al-Ash’ath – al-Sha’bi: “Israfil was associated with the Messenger of God’s prophethood for three years. The Messenger of God was aware of him, but could not see his person. After that came Gabriel.”
حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ الْمُثَنَّى ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي عَدِيٍّ ، عَنْ دَاوُدَ ، عَنْ عَامِرٍ ، قَالَ : أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَيْهِ النُّبُوَّةُ وَهُوَ ابْنُ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً ، فَقُرِنَ بِنُبُوَّتِهِ إِسْرَافِيلُ ثَلاثَ سِنِينَ ، فَكَانَ يُعَلِّمُهُ الْكَلِمَةَ وَالشَّيْءَ ، وَلَمْ يَنْزِلِ الْقُرْآنُ عَلَى لِسَانِهِ ، فَلَمَّا مَضَتْ ثَلاثُ سِنِينَ ، قُرِنَ بِنُبُوَّتِهِ جِبْرِيلُ ، عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ ، فَنَزَلَ الْقُرْآنُ عَلَى لِسَانِهِ عَشْرَ سِنِينَ بِمَكَّةَ ، وَعَشْرَ سِنِينَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ
Ibn al-Muthanna – Ibn Abi Adi – Dawud – Amir: “Prophethood descended upon him when he was forty. Israfil was associated with his prophethood for three years, and used to teach him the word and the deed, but the Qur’an was not revealed by his tongue. After three years had gone by Gabriel was associated with Muhammad’s prophethood and the Qur’an was revealed by his tongue for ten years in Mecca and ten years in al-Madinah.”
In explanation of this, Ibn Kathir quotes, in his al-Bidaya wal-Nihaya, Shaykh Shihab al-Din Abu Shama:
وأما الشيخ شهاب الدين أبو شامة فإنه قد قال : وحديث عائشة لا ينافي هذا ، فإنه يجوز أن يكون أول أمره الرؤيا ، ثم وكل به إسرافيل في تلك المدة التي كان يخلو فيها بحراء ، فكان يلقي إليه الكلمة بسرعة ، ولا يقيم معه ; تدريجا له وتمرينا إلى أن جاءه جبريل ، فعلمه بعدما غطه ثلاث مرات . فحكت عائشة ما جرى له مع جبريل ، ولم تحك ما جرى له مع إسرافيل اختصارا للحديث ، أو لم تكن وقفت على قصة إسرافيل
“The Hadith of Aaisha does not negate this. It is possible that the first of his affair were Visions, then Israfil was associated with him during his seclusion in Hira, giving him the word”
In other words, before the Angel Gabriel came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) with the revelation of the Quraan, it was the Angel Israfil guiding and inspiring him for a period of three years.

Thursday, 5 April 2018

Refutation of Dualism and Qadariya

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

والعاقبة للمتقين

Refutation of Dualism

The heresy of Thanawiya or dualism crept into the Muslim Umma through the toxic influence of Magianism or Zoroastrianism from Iran. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him & his family) said: “The Qadariya are the Magians of this Umma.” (Sunan Abi Dawud: Kitab al-Sunna) The Qadariya is the name for all those sects and groups ascribing themselves to Islam who hold that the human being is the creator of his own deeds and so makes his own Qadar or determination and not Allah. The Qadariya tend to believe that nothing is set in stone and that we are in a state of fluctuation where things are indefinite or undetermined. Zoroastrian dualists believe that there is a cosmic struggle between Ahura Mazda and Ahriman, and that the outcome of this struggle is unknown or undetermined. It is certainly true that there is a dualism between Light and Darkness or Truth and Falsehood, as the Holy Quran repeatedly makes clear, but in this the outcome is decidedly a triumph for Light/Truth: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Verily, falsehood is bound to vanish.” (Sura 17:81) According to Islamic theology, the Devil is already doomed but Allah Most High granted him respite until Judgment Day, at which time he will be thrown into the Fire along with all those who followed him (Sura 7:13-18; 15:34-43) The Devil has no Sultan (power or authority) over the pure servants of Allah, except for Waswas (whispering evil suggestions). This is something which Allah Most High has already determined. Furthermore, the belief of Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a is that Allah has already written the names of everyone who will be granted salvation and entered into Paradise and also the names of everyone that is doomed to Hell. It is mentioned in a Hadith:
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِي، قَالَ خَرَجَ عَلَيْنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَفِي يَدِهِ كِتَابَانِ فَقَالَ ‏ أَتَدْرُونَ مَا هَذَانِ الْكِتَابَانِ.‏ فَقُلْنَا لاَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ تُخْبِرَنَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لِلَّذِي فِي يَدِهِ الْيُمْنَى ‏"‏ هَذَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ فِيهِ أَسْمَاءُ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَأَسْمَاءُ آبَائِهِمْ وَقَبَائِلِهِمْ ثُمَّ أُجْمِلَ عَلَى آخِرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُزَادُ فِيهِمْ وَلاَ يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُمْ أَبَدًا ‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ لِلَّذِي فِي شِمَالِهِ  هَذَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ فِيهِ أَسْمَاءُ أَهْلِ النَّارِ وَأَسْمَاءُ آبَائِهِمْ وَقَبَائِلِهِمْ ثُمَّ أُجْمِلَ عَلَى آخِرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُزَادُ فِيهِمْ وَلاَ يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُمْ أَبَدًا ‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَصْحَابُهُ فَفِيمَ الْعَمَلُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنْ كَانَ أَمْرٌ قَدْ فُرِغَ مِنْهُ فَقَالَ ‏ سَدِّدُوا وَقَارِبُوا فَإِنَّ صَاحِبَ الْجَنَّةِ يُخْتَمُ لَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَإِنْ عَمِلَ أَىَّ عَمَلٍ وَإِنَّ صَاحِبَ النَّارِ يُخْتَمُ لَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ وَإِنْ عَمِلَ أَىَّ عَمَلٍ ‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِيَدَيْهِ فَنَبَذَهُمَا ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَرَغَ رَبُّكُمْ مِنَ الْعِبَادِ فَرِيقٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌ فِي السَّعِيرِ
Abdullah bin Amr narrated: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came out to us with two books in hand. And he said: “Do you know what these two books are?” We said: “No, O Messenger of Allah! Unless you inform us.” He said about the one that was in his right hand: “This is a book from the Lord of the worlds, in it are the names of the people of Paradise, and the names of their fathers and their tribes. Then there is a summary at the end of them, there being no addition to them nor deduction from them forever.” Then he said about the one that was in his left: “This is a book from the Lord of the worlds, in it are the names of the people of the Fire and the names of their fathers and their tribes. Then there is a summary at the end of them, there being no addition to them nor deduction from them forever.” The Companions said: “So why work O Messenger of Allah! Since the matter is already decided?” He said: “Seek to do what is right and draw nearer, for indeed the inhabitant of Paradise shall have his work sealed off with the deeds of the people of Paradise, whichever deeds he did. And indeed the inhabitant of the Fire shall have his work sealed off with the deeds of the people of the Fire, whichever deeds he did.” Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) motioned with his hands, casting them down and said: “Your Lord finished with the slaves, a group in Paradise, and a group in the Blazing Fire.” (Jami al-Tirmidhi #2141)

When the matter has been concluded, Satan says to his followers: “Verily, Allah promised you the promise of truth, and I promised you but I betrayed you. And I had no authority over you except that I called upon you and you responded to me. So do not blame me but blame yourselves. I cannot be called to your aid nor can you be called to my aid. Indeed, I reject your association of me [with Allah] from before.” (Sura 14:22)

Like the example of Satan when he says to man: “Disbelieve!”, so when he disbelieves, he [Satan] says: “Indeed, I am disassociated from you. Indeed I fear Allah, Lord of the worlds.” (Sura 59:16)

These and other Verses of the Holy Quran prove that Satan has no independent power or authority. He is on a very tight leash and knows full well that his true Lord is Allah Most High, Whom he even fears. Zoroastrian or Magian dualism is diametrically opposed to the teachings of Islam. This does not mean that Satan acts on behalf of Allah, as is the belief of Judaism, and that he is actually an Angel or good. The Holy Quran is explicit in declaring Satan or the Devil evil, rejected and accursed for his pride and his waging of war against Allah Most High, a war he obviously cannot win.

Murjia Sects

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah, the Gracious the Merciful
Murji’a or “delayers”, “postponers”, “deferrers” are heretical groups which were among the original four deviant sects that broke away from the Jama’a of the Muslims, the other three being the Khawarij, the Rawafid and the Qadariya. The Murji’a themselves were split into several subsects. In this entry I shall give a brief outline of them:
1. Yunusiya: Followers of Yunus b. Awn al-Numairi. They believe that a Believer enters Paradise on account of his sincerity and love (of God) alone, not on account of his deeds and his obedience.
2. Ubaidiya: Followers of Ubaid al-Mukta’ib. They believe that when a person dies a monotheist no sin that he has committed or evil that he has done will harm him.
3. Ghassaniya: Followers of Ghassan al-Kufi. They believe that faith increases but does not decrease.
4. Thaubaniya: Followers of Abu Thauban. They believe that whatever reason manifests as not obligatory is not part of faith.
5. Taumaniya: Followers of Abu Mu’adh al-Taumani. They believe that the word faith refers to the qualities of knowledge, belief, love, sincerity, and acceptance of what has been revealed through the Prophet (peace be upon him & his family). “To make obeisance to the sun, moon and idols is not unbelief in itself, but a sign of unbelief”.
6. Salihiya: Followers of Salih b. Umar al-Salihi. They believe that prayer is not worship of God, and that there is not worship of God except faith in Him. Faith consists in the knowledge of God; it is an undivided quality which does not increase or decrease. Similarly, “unbelief is an undivided quality which does not increase or decrease”.

Sayyidatuna Aishah (RA): Say He is Seal of Prophets But Don't Say 'No Prophet After Him'

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