Friday, 31 August 2018

Twelve Caliphs of Quraysh


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

والصلاة والسلام على رسوله الكريم

وعلى اهل بيته الطيبين الطاهرين المظلومين

والعاقبة للمتقين

The Ithna Ashari or Twelver sect of Shiism point to the Hadith of the Twelve Caliphs narrated by sayyidina Jabir bin Samurah ؓ to justify their doctrine of there being twelve infallible Imams, beginning with Amir ul-Muminin Ali bin Abi Talib ؓ and ending with their supposed “Mahdi”, Muhammad bin Hasan al-Askari. The Prophet Muhammad said:
لاَ يَزَالُ الإِسْلاَمُ عَزِيزًا إِلَى اثْنَىْ عَشَرَ خَلِيفَةً
“Islam will not cease to be mighty until there have been twelve caliphs”
كُلُّهُمْ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ
“Each of them will be of Quraysh” (Sahih Muslim)
In another version:
لاَ يَزَالُ الدِّينُ قَائِمًا حَتَّى تَقُومَ السَّاعَةُ أَوْ يَكُونَ عَلَيْكُمُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ خَلِيفَةً كُلُّهُمْ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ
“The Religion will not cease to be established until the establishment of the Hour or until there have been over you twelve caliphs, each of them of Quraysh” (Sahih Muslim)
The Twelver Shiah naturally assert that this prophecy is a reference to their twelve Imams. However, this is impossible because the Hadith describes them as being khalifah which necessitates that they are individuals who will actually rule over the Muslims. None of the twelve Imams of the Shiah, with the exception of the first, Amir ul-Muminin Ali bin Abi Talib and his son sayyidina Hasan , wielded political authority over the Muslim community or were caliphs. Secondly, if the Prophet was referring to the twelve Imams of the Shiah, he would have said that each of them will be from my ahl al-Bayt, or at the very least, from among Banu Hashim or Banu Abd ul-Muttalib. Instead, the Prophet said each of them will be from Quraysh, a broader category which includes other clans that are not from the ahl al-Bayt. Likewise, it would make more sense for him to say that with the exception of sayyidina Ali himself, each of them would be from the progeny of sayyidatuna FatimahAS, or he could have said that they are sayyidina Ali and eleven others from his children, or he could have said they are all Talibids, from the children of Abu Talib. Rather, he said they are all from Quraysh. Imagine a group of tourists, each and every one being from China, visit New York City. A curious local asks them: “where are you all from?”, and in response they say “we are all from Asia”, instead of “we are all from China”! It would only make sense for them to say “we are all from Asia”, if they were from different countries within Asia, but since they are all from the same country, China, they should say “we are from China” instead of “we are from Asia”. In summary, these are some of the compelling reasons to reject the Shiite interpretation of the Hadith of Jabir bin SamurahRA that it is a reference to their twelve Imams.
But from our perspective, if not the twelve Imams, then who are the twelve Caliphs of Quraysh, under whose rule Islam shall not cease to be mighty and established, referring to? The first thing the reader should keep in mind is that this Hadith is not necessarily a commendation of the twelve caliphs. It is only a prophecy that declares that Islam will continue to be strong and established in the time of these twelve individuals, who are described as “caliphs”. Secondly, it should also be noted that according to the wording of this Hadith, it is not necessary that these twelve caliphs of Quraysh come one after another consecutively. From the orthodox and mainstream Sunni perspective, the Prophet’s first four rightly-guided successors, namely, sayyidina Abi Bakr al-Siddiq ؓ, sayyidina Umar al-Faruq ؓ, sayyidina Uthman bin Affan ؓ, and sayyidina Ali al-Murtada ؓ are obviously the first four of these twelve caliphs of Quraysh. There is a very strong case to say that sayyidina Hasan al-Mujtaba ؓ is the fifth of the twelve caliphs of Quraysh, although his caliphate lasted for only six months before he abdicated for the noble purpose of putting an end to the civil war that had split the Muslims in his time. Now in my view, which is perfectly in tune with the wording of the prophecy, the sixth of the twelve caliphs of Quraysh was Umar bin Abd ul-Aziz, an Umayyad ruler who was a Mujaddid that revived the Sunnah and the system of the Khilafat al-Rashidah. I believe that another one of these twelve caliphs is yet to come, but the Prophet has described him:
يَكُونُ فِي آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ خَلِيفَةٌ يَقْسِمُ الْمَالَ وَلاَ يَعُدُّهُ
“There will be, in the end of time, a Caliph who will distribute wealth without counting it” (Sahih Muslim)
This is regarded as a reference to the Imam al-Mahdi , a man from the ahl al-Bayt and progeny of FatimahAS, who will establish justice in the land after it was filled with tyranny and oppression. Now we know that the system of Khilafat ala Minhaj an-Nubuwwah will in the future be revived, perhaps in connection with the advent of Imam al-Mahdi, and its restoration proceeds a period of coercive, dictatorial rule:
ثُمَّ تَكُونُ مُلْكًا جَبْرِيَّةً ، فَتَكُونُ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تَكُونَ ، ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا ، ثُمَّ تَكُونُ خِلَافَةً عَلَى مِنْهَاجِ النُّبُوَّةِ  ثُمَّ سَكَتَ
“Then there shall be coercive kingship, so it shall be as long as Allah wills it to be, then He will obliterate it when He wills to obliterate it, then there shall be Caliphate upon the methodology of Prophethood. Then he was silent.” (Musnad Ahmad) The caliphs of that restorative period, if they are of Quraysh, are certainly elligible for being described as being among those twelve caliphs regarding whom the Prophet said that they are those through whom Islam shall not cease to be mighty and established. According to a version of the Hadith of Jabir bin SamurahRA:
كُلُّهُمْ تَجْتَمِعُ عَلَيْهِ الأُمَّةُ
“The Ummah will be in concensus regarding each of them” (Sunan Abi Dawud #4279)
However, these words are not authentically established from the Prophet .

Abu Hanifah: No Hadd for Prostitution


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

والصلاة والسلام على رسوله الكريم

وعلى اهل بيته الطيبين الطاهرين المظلومين

والعاقبة للمتقين

According to the Hanafi text, Fatawa Qadhikhan, according to Imam Abi Hanifah (rahimahullah) there is no hadd for paying a woman for the purpose of committing zina with her:
ولو استأجر امرأة ليزني بها فزنى بها, لا يحدّ في قول أبي حنيفة رحمه الله تعالى
“If he paid a woman to do zina with her, so he did zina with her, there is no hadd in the saying of Abi Hanifah may Allah Most High have mercy on him” (Fatawa Qadhikhan v.3 p.382):


 

However, this position of Imam Abi Hanifah does not mean that he considered such an act as permissible, only that there is no hadd (statutory punishment) for it according to his opinion and ijtihad. Nevertheless, this is his individual position, but the position of the Hanafi madhhab, upon which is the fatwa of the madhhab, is that there is a hadd to be enforced in such a scenario.

Thursday, 30 August 2018

Event of Ghadir Khumm (Part 2)


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

والصلاة والسلام على رسوله الكريم

وعلى اهل بيته الطيبين الطاهرين المظلومين

والعاقبة للمتقين

Continuing from the previous entry, the Shi’ah claim that Allah revealed the following Ayah of the Quran in connection with the Prophet’s duty to announce the succession of Amir ul-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib ؓ:

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

O Messenger, convey that which has been revealed to you from your Lord. And if you do not then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people. Verily, Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

(Surah 5:67)

According to the Shi’ah narrative, when the Prophet was initially ordered to designate and proclaim to the world the succession of sayyidina Ali bin Abi Talib ؓ, he became apprehensive and fearful, lest his companions turn back from Islam and accuse him of lying. So in order to comfort the Prophet and reassure him, Allah revealed this Ayah. It was only then that the Prophet was able to proclaim the succession and wilayah of sayyidina Ali ؓ at Ghadir Khumm with the words: “for whomsoever I am his mawla, then Ali is his mawla.” Hence it is narrated in the Shi’ite Hadith:
علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عمر بن أذينة، عن زرارة والفضيل بن يسار، وبكير بن أعين ومحمد بن مسلم وبريد بن معاوية وأبي الجارود جميعا عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: أمر الله عز وجل رسوله بولاية علي وأنزل عليه " إنما وليكم الله ورسوله والذين آمنوا الذين يقيمون الصلاة ويؤتون الزكاة " وفرض ولاية أولي الامر، فلم يدروا ما هي، فأمر الله محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله أن يفسر لهم الولاية، كما فسر لهم الصلاة، والزكاة والصوم والحج، فلما أتاه ذلك من الله، ضاق بذلك صدر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وتخوف أن يرتدوا عن دينهم وأن يكذبوه فضاق صدره وراجع ربه عز وجل فأوحى الله عز وجل إليه " يا أيها الرسول بلغ ما أنزل إليك من ربك وإن لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته والله يعصمك من الناس " فصدع بأمر الله تعالى ذكره فقام بولاية علي عليه السلام يوم غدير خم
Ali ibn Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abu 'Umayr from 'Umar ibn Udhaynah from Zurarah and Fudayl ibn Yasar and Bukayr ibn A'yan and Muhammad ibn Muslim and Burayd ibn Muiawiyah and Abu '1- Jarud, together, that Abu Ja'far (p.b.u.h.) said: "Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, charged His Messenger with the Mastership of Ali, and sent down to him: Your Master is only Alldh, and His Messenger and those who believe who perform the prayer and pay zakat. He decreed the Mastership of those in authority, although they (the people) did not understand what it was. Allah command Muhammad (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) to interpret (and explain) Mastership for them as he had interpreted (and explained) prayer, zakat, fasting and hajj. When this came to him from Allah, the mind of the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.ah.p.) became straitened by it and he became afraid lest they (the people) abandon their religion and come to deny it. So his mind was staitened and he consulted with his Lord, to Whom belong Might and Majesty; and Allah to Whom belong Might and Majesty revealed to him: O Messenger, deliver that which has been sent down to thee from thy Lord; for if thou cost not, thou wig not have delivered His Message. Allah will protect thee from men (al-Ma'idah, 5:67). He complied with the command of Allah, may remembrance of Him be exlated, and endorsed the Mastership of Ali on the day of Ghadir Khumm. (al-Kafi: ch.64 h.4)
محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد ومحمد بن الحسين جميعا، عن محمد بن إسماعيل ابن بزيع، عن منصور بن يونس، عن أبي الجارود، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: فرض الله عز وجل على العباد خمسا، أخذوا أربعا وتركوا واحدا، قلت: أتسميهن لي جعلت فداك؟ فقال: الصلاة وكان الناس لا يدرون كيف يصلون، فنزل جبرئيل عليه السلام فقال: يا محمد أخبرهم بمواقيت صلاتهم، ثم نزلت الزكاة فقال: يا محمد أخبرهم من زكاتهم ما أخبرتهم من صلاتهم، ثم نزل الصوم فكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله إذا كان يوم عاشورا بعث إلى ما حوله من القرى فصاموا ذلك اليوم فنزل شهر رمضان بين شعبان وشوال، ثم نزل الحج فنزل جبرئيل عليه السلام فقال:
أخبرهم من حجهم ما أخبرتهم من صلاتهم وزكاتهم وصومهم.
ثم نزلت الولاية وإنما أتاه ذلك في يوم الجمعة بعرفة، أنزل الله عز وجل " اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم وأتممت عليكم نعمتي " وكان كمال الدين بولاية علي ابن أبي طالب عليه السلام  فقال عند ذلك رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: أمتي حديثوا عهد بالجاهلية ومتى أخبرتهم بهذا في ابن عمي يقول قائل، ويقول قائل - فقلت في نفسي من غير أن ينطق به لساني - فأتتني عزيمة من الله عز وجل بتلة (2) أوعدني إن لم أبلغ أن يعذبني، فنزلت " يا أيها الرسول بلغ ما انزل إليك من ربك وإن لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته والله يعصمك من الناس إن الله لا يهدي القوم الكافرين  " فأخذ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بيد علي عليه السلام فقال: أيها الناس إنه لم يكن نبي من الأنبياء ممن كان قبلي إلا وقد عمره الله، ثم دعاه فأجابه، فأوشك أن ادعى فأجيب وأنا مسؤول وأنتم مسؤولون فماذا أنتم قائلون؟ فقالوا: نشهد أنك قد بلغت ونصحت، وأديت ما عليك فجزاك الله أفضل جزاء المرسلين، فقال: اللهم اشهد - ثلاث مرات - ثم قال: يا معشر المسلمين هذا وليكم من بعدي فليبلغ الشاهد منكم الغائب
Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn al-Husayn, the two together from Muhammad ibn Isma'il ibn Bazi' from Mansur ibn Yunus that Abu 'I-Jarud said: "I heard Abu Ja'far (p.b.u.h.) say: Aliah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, made five things incumbent on (his) servants: they accepted four and rejected one.' I said: 'May I be made your ransom, name them for me.' He said: 'Prayer; but the people did not understand how to pray, then Jibril (pb.uh.) came down and said: "O Muhammad, inform them of the timings of their prayers." Then zakat was sent down, and He said: "O Muhammad, inform them of their zakit as you have informed them of their prayer." Then fasting was sent down, and, when the day of 'Ashura came, the Messenger of Allah (pb.uh.ah.p.) sent a message to the villages around it (Medina), and they fasted on that day. Then (the fasting) of the month of Ramadan, between (the months of ) Sha'ban and Shawwal, was sent down. Then hajj was sent down, and Jibril (p.b.uh.) came down and said: "Inform them of their hajj as you informed them of their prayer, their Rabat and their fasting." Then the Mastership was sent down, and when this came to him on Friday at 'Arafah (or 'Arafat, the gathering place for the pilgrims on the 9th of Dhu 'l-Hijjah, near Mecca), Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, sent down: Today I have completed your religion for you, and I have perfected My blessing upon you (al-Ma'idah,5:3). The completion of the religion was through the Mastership of Ali ibn Abu Talib (p.b.uh.). Then the Messenger of Allah (pb.uh.ah.p.) said together with this (verse): "My community has recently experienced the jahiliyyah (the period of ignorance before Islam), and whenever I inform them of this concerning my cousin, one speaker will say this and another will say that. I say (this) to myself without my tongue speaking out: a decisive obligation came to me from Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, with finality; He threatened me that if I did not make (this) reach (the people), He would punish me." Then was sent down: O Messenger, deliver that which has been sent down to thee from thy Lord; for if thou cost not, thou wilt not have delivered His Message. Allah will protect thee from men. Allah guides not the people of the unbelievers (al-Matidah, S :67). Then the Messenger of Allah (p.b.uh.a.h.p.) took the hand of Ali (pb.uh.) and said: "O people, there was no prophet among the prophets who were before me to whom Allah did not grant a span of life, then tie called him and he answered Him. The time is now near when I shall be called and I will answer. I shall be questioned and you will be questioned, and what will you say?" They said: "We bear witness that you have delivered (what you had to deliver) and advised sincerely, and conveyed what you had. May Allah reward you with the best of the rewards of those who were messengers." He said: "O Allah, I call you to witness"—three times —then he said: "O assembly of believers, that this man is your Master (wall) after me. Let the one among you who witnesses this convey (what he has seen) to the one who is absent." (al-Kafi ch.64 h.6)
Incidentally, this latter narration confirms that the Prophet and his companions fasted on the day of Ashura, which is something the Shi’ite polemicist Ammar Nakshawani accuses the Sunnis of having fabricated. These two preceding narrations from the Shi’ite book al-Kafi, claim that the Prophet was apprehensive about announcing the succession of Amir ul-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib ؓ. He feared that his people would accuse him of lying and apostate from the Religion. It is mentioned in the latter narration that he was commanded to do this on the day of Arafah, on the 9th of Dhi-l-Hijjah, but he became apprehensive (God forbid), and neglected his duty. It was nine days later after Allah revealed the verse (5:67) that the Prophet felt reassured and proclaimed the Wilayah of Ali ؓ at Ghadir Khumm. The problem with this Shi’ite narrative is that it necessarily implies that the Prophet never designated or proclaimed the succession of sayyidina Ali ؓ before the event of Ghadir Khumm. Why then do the Shi’ah quote the event of Da’wat al-Ashirah, when the Prophet gathered his closest relatives in Makkah and allegedly stated that Ali ؓ was his successor, or the Hadith al-Manzilah, which was uttered before the expedition of Tabuk. If the Shi’ah insist that this Ayah, the Ayat at-Tabligh (5:67) was revealed concerning the succession of sayyidina Ali, they will necessarily have to forsake the quoting of the event of Da’wat al-Ashirah and Hadith al-Manzilah as proof that the Prophet appointed sayyidina Ali ؓ as his immediate successor, because these events were prior to the event of Ghadir Khumm and the revelation of Ayat at-Tabligh.

Event of Ghadir Khumm


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

والصلاة والسلام على رسوله الكريم

وعلى اهل بيته الطيبين الطاهرين المظلومين

والعاقبة للمتقين
On this occasion the Shi’ah community celebrate Eid al-Ghadir to commemorate the event when the Prophet Muhammad supposedly designated his illustrious cousin and son-in-law, sayyidina Ali bin Abi Talib – may Allah be pleased with him – as his immediate successor. On this very blog, I have previously discussed some of the other major proof texts presented by the Shi’ah in favor of their belief that the Prophet Muhammad designated Amir ul-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi TalibRA as his immediate successor, such as the Hadith al-Manzilah. The Shi’ah commemoration of Eid al-Ghadir is in reference to the mashhur (well-known) and mutawatir (mass-transmitted) Hadith of Ghadir Khumm, in which the Prophet said:

مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلاَهُ فَعَلِيٌّ مَوْلاَهُ

For whomsoever I am his mawlaa, then Ali is his mawlaa

As has already preceded, the Shi’ah consider this Hadith as yet another explicit proof that the Prophet designated Amir ul-Mu’minin, Ali bin Abi TalibRA, as his immediate successor and the leader of the Muslims. The regular reader of this blog is by now aware that I hold the position of the orthodox and mainstream ahl us-Sunnati wal-Jama’ah with regard to the issue of the Prophet’s succession, or the issue of khilafah and imamah. Our standard response to the Shi’ah argument derived from this Hadith revolves around the interpretation of the word mawlaa. For the Shi’ah, here it signifies the political wilayah of sayyidina Ali – may Allah be pleased with him – in the sense that he is to lead and rule the Muslim community. However, it should be noted that the words mawlaa and walee bear a variety of meanings. These two words are derived from the root w-l-y, which connotes: “adjacency; to follow; to turn to/from; to befriend, to back up; to take control; helper, backer, guardian, benefactor; next of kin; patron, servant/master; companion, partner” (Arabic-English Dictionary of Quranic Usage, p.1047). The word mawla in particular can mean: “master, protector, patron, ally, friend, kin, dependant, a freed slave, inheritor, heir” (ibid, pp.1048-1049), similarly, the word wali can mean: “protector, patron, ally, follower, ward, protégé, ally, friend, legal guardian, next of kin, descendant, heir” (ibid, p.1048). Consequently, the Shi’ah translate the Hadith to mean “For whomsoever I am his master, then Ali is his master”, whereas, Ahl us-Sunnah translate it as follows: “For whomsoever I am his friend, then Ali is his friend.” Ultimately, the word mawla as it occurs in this Hadith will have to be defined based on the context, setting and background in which the Prophet made this announcement. But before we go down that road, I wish to point out that elsewhere when the Shi’ah proclaim the wilayah of Amir ul-Mu’minin Ali b. Abi Talib ؓ they, like the Sunnis, do not mean a political wilayah of governance or leadership. For example, examine the shahadah or basic creed and testimony of faith of the Shi’ah:

أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله، وأشهد أن محمدًا رسول الله، وأشهد أن عليًا أمير المؤمنين ولي الله

“I bear witness that there is no god except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and I bear witness that Ali, commander of the faithful, is the Wali of Allah”

In professing sayyidina Ali ؓ as the “Wali of Allah” it is obvious that they mean he is the friend and ally of Allah, and not the political master or leader of Allah, as the latter meaning is a manifest blasphemy.
These are the days of the month of Dhi-l-Hijjah. It is in this month that Muslims around the world undertake the pilgrimage to the sacred House of Allah in Makkah, which is not only an obligatory rite but one of the five pillars of Islam. One of the rites of this pilgrimage is for all the pilgrims to gather on Mount Arafat to hear a sermon. The Prophet Muhammad delivered his final, farewell sermon on the 9th of Dhi-l-Hijjah in the valley of Mount Arafat. Now if the Prophet was commanded to designate sayyidina Ali al-Murtada ؓ as his immediate successor and the one to lead the Muslims after his death, he would obviously have made mention of that in this his final, farewell sermon, when virtually the entire Muslim community of that time had assembled at his blessed feet in the valley of Mount Arafat. Rather, in that final, farewell sermon, the Prophet declared:
وَقَدْ تَرَكْتُ فِيكُمْ مَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا بَعْدَهُ إِنِ اعْتَصَمْتُمْ بِهِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ ‏‏ وَأَنْتُمْ تُسْأَلُونَ عَنِّي فَمَا أَنْتُمْ قَائِلُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ قَدْ بَلَّغْتَ وَأَدَّيْتَ وَنَصَحْتَ ‏ فَقَالَ بِإِصْبَعِهِ السَّبَّابَةِ يَرْفَعُهَا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَيَنْكُتُهَا إِلَى النَّاسِ ‏‏ اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدِ اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ ‏ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ
“I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say?” They (the audience) said: “We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel.” He (the narrator) said: He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said): “O Allah, bear witness. O Allah, bear witness,” saying it thrice. (Sahih Muslim: Kitab al-Hajj) It was on this occasion that the Verse of the Quran was revealed:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

Today I have perfected for you your Religion and completed upon you My favor and have chosen for you Islam as Religion

(Surah 5:3)

In summary, and I shall write more on this controversy soon, ان شاء الله, there is no proof that the Prophet intended to announce the political succession of sayyidina Ali ؓ in the proclamation he made at Ghadir Khumm, which was on the 18th of Dhi-l-Hijjah, nine days after his final, farewell sermon to the nation in the valley of Mount Arafat. The verse of the Quran “Today I have perfected for you your Religion…” was revealed days before the proclamation of Ghadir Khumm. The Prophet simply announced a fadilah (virtue, excellence) and explained the great status of sayyidina Ali ؓ at Ghadir Khumm, by declaring that whomsoever is his friend, then Ali is his friend too. The use of the word mawlaa should be reflected upon. In other instances, the Prophet used words like amir, khalifah, imam, sultan, etc., to describe the leader or ruler of the Muslims in the political sense, but never the word mawla.

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