Thursday, 29 November 2018

Prophesy Within al-Abbas RA

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
وصلى الله على خاتم النبيين
والعاقبة للمتقين
It is related in several books of Hadith that sayyidina Abi Huraira رضى الله عنه narrated that the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to his uncle al-Abbas رضى الله عنه:
فِيكُمُ النُّبُوَّةُ وَالْمَمْلَكَةُ
“Within you is prophesy and monarchy”
The muhaddithin reject this Hadith due to the narrator Muhammad b. Abdir-Rahman al-‘Amiri. However, the narrator is actually Muhammad b. Abdir-Rahman b. Thawban al-‘Amiri, who is not weak but thiqa:

If authentic, this Hadith is a predictive statement regarding there being dynastic rule from the progeny of sayyidina Abbas رضى الله عنه, i.e., the Abbasid dynasty. But the same Hadith states that there will also be Nubuwwa or prophesy within sayyidina Abbas رضى الله عنه and his family, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم having addressed him in the second person plural. Perhaps this means that within sayyidina Abbas رضى الله عنه himself and maybe among some saintly individuals from his progeny, there is a trace of or manifestation of Nubuwwa. This is the partial Nubuwwa known as al-Mubashirat, as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
لَا نُبُوَّةَ بَعْدِي إِلَّا الْمُبَشِّرَاتِ
“There is no prophesy after me except the Mubashshirat”
(Musnad Ahmad)
And the Mubashshirat, as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم explained, are the true and pious visions from Allah that one sees and experiences. Regarding the saintly person of sayyidina Abbas رضى الله عنه, it is known that he was very close and dear to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. Since he outlived his beloved nephew صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم he was a natural candidate to succeed the latter. Although he did not formally succeed him in the institution of khilafa as Allah decreed and favored sayyidina Abi Bakr رضى الله عنه for that office through the consultation of Saqifa Bani Sa’ida. But he (Abbas) was a successor of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم in the spiritual sense, like many other of the Prophets’ eminent companions. Hence, sayyidina Anas رضى الله عنه narrates:
أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، كَانَ إِذَا قَحَطُوا اسْتَسْقَى بِالْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ، فَقَالَ اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا كُنَّا نَتَوَسَّلُ إِلَيْكَ بِنَبِيِّنَا صلى الله عليه وسلم فَتَسْقِينَا، وَإِنَّا نَتَوَسَّلُ إِلَيْكَ بِعَمِّ نَبِيِّنَا فَاسْقِنَا‏.‏ قَالَ فَيُسْقَوْنَ
Whenever there was drought, Umar b. al-Khattab used to ask Allah for rain through al-Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, saying, “Allahumma! We used to request our Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم to ask You for rain, and You would give us. Now we request the uncle of our Prophet to ask You for rain, so give us rain.” And they would be given rain. (Sahih al-Bukhari)
And this Hadith demonstrates that there was a trace of the kamalat of prophesy within sayyidina Abbas which he inherited from his nephew صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and Allah knows best.

Deobandi: No Effect to Finality if Another Prophet Comes

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
وصلى الله على خاتم النبيين
والعاقبة للمتقين
Continuing from the previous entry, another Deobandi, Abu Bakr Ghazipuri, writes:
سارے انبیا کی نبوت آپکی نبوت کا فیض ہے، اگر بفرض محال دوسرا نبی بھی آۓ تو آپکی نبوت اس کی نبوت کی اصل ہوگی اور آپ ہی کی نبوت کا فیض ہوگی۔ اور آپ اس کی نبوت کے بھی ذاتی اعتبار سے خاتم ہوں گے، جس طرح تمام انبیاء کے آپ خاتم ہیں۔
“The Prophethood of Muhammad is original and the Prophethood of the other Ambiyaa stems from the effulgence of his Nubuwah. That also means that he is the Seal of the Ambiyaa, from the first of them to the last, in aspects of personality, time and place. Even if in theory there should have been a prophet after him, that would have no effect on his Finality, because his Nubuwah is vested in himself orginally whilst the others stem from his effulgence. There is no doubt that that statement is correct...He being the Seal of the Ambiyaa, in personality, time and place, there would be no harm to his Nubuwat if in theory there were to be another Nabi in the era after him.” (Kia Ibn Taymiya Ulama e Ahle Sunnat wal-Jamaat Main Sey Hein? p.18):




It should be noted here that while on one hand the Deobandis argue that the finality of Prophet Muhammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم prophethood is of a dual nature, i.e., it is both chronological and essential, on the other hand, Maulawi Qasim Nanautawi and his followers, like this Abu Bakr Ghazipuri, have stated that if, theoretically, another Prophet were to come after the time of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم, it would have absolutely no effect on the Finality of Prophethood. But if the Prophet Muhammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم finality is of a chronological nature, then certainly the appearance of a Prophet after him chronologically should be a violation of that finality. One cannot therefore help but conclude that Qasim Nanautawi and his blind followers do not really affirm a chronological finality for Prophet Muhammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم prophethood.

Deobandis: Prophethood of Other Prophets is Accidental

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
وصلى الله على خاتم النبيين
والعاقبة للمتقين
Three days ago from today I wrote a column divulging a closely guarded secret of the Deobandis concerning their postulation that the nubuwwa of all the ancient prophets - from Adam to the Messiah على نبينا وعليهم الصلوات والتسليمات - is an accidental property of theirs and not essential. This innovated metaphysical doctrine was introduced by the founder of the Deobandi sect, Mawlana Muhammad Qasim Nanautawi, who wrote that it is only the prophethood of sayyidina Muhammad صلوات الله وسلامه عليه that is an essential prophethood and the masdar (source) of the prophethood of the other prophets who attain their respective prophethoods through the wasata (medium) of Prophet Muhammad صلوات الله وسلامه عليه as a faid (emanation). This is in contrast to the teaching of the holy Qur’an, which is that Allah has directly made each of those great individuals, from Adam to the Messiah على نبينا وعليهم الصلوات والتسليمات into prophets, with no mention of their having attained their respective prophethoods through the medium or emanation of any other prophet:

قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّـهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا
(Messiah) said: “Verily, I am a slave of Allah. He gave me the Book and made me a prophet.”
(Sura 19:30)
وَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۖ وَكُلًّا جَعَلْنَا نَبِيًّا
And We granted him (Abraham) Isaac and Jacob. And We made each into a prophet
(Sura 19:49)

Lest the reader think this is an isolated case and a belief held only be Qasim of Nanawta and not their official dogma, I shall quote from the Deobandi catechism:
“Yes, our teacher and our master, chief of the intelligent scrutinisers, Mawlawi Muhammad Qasim al-Nanotwi (Allah Exalted is He have mercy on him), produced a novel insight by his critical mind, completing his sealship (khatamiyyah) in a complete manner and perfecting it in a perfect manner, as he (Allah Exalted is He have mercy on him) said in his treatise entitled Tahdhir al-Nas, the upshot of which is that:
Sealship is a genus under which are two species:
The first of them is ‘chronological sealship’ (khatamiyya zamaniyya) which is that the time of his prophethood (Allah bless him and grant him peace) occurs after the time of the prophethood of all other Prophets and he is thus a chronological seal of their prophethood. The second is ‘essential sealship’ (khatamiyya dhatiyyah), which is that by the essence of his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) prophethood, the prophethood of all the Prophets is sealed and culminates in it. Just as he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is the seal of the Prophets in time, he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is also the seal of the Prophets in essence, since all that is accidental is terminated by that which is essential, culminate in it and do not surpass it. Since his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) prophethood is essential and the prophethood of other Prophets is accidental, because their prophethood  was secondary to his prophethood and he is the most perfect and honourable particular, the pole of the domain of prophethood and messengership and the medium of its contraction, he is both the chronological and essential seal of the Prophets. His sealship is not limited to chronological sealship since it is neither a big virtue nor an increase in his rank that his time comes after the time of the Prophets before him, rather complete supremacy, extreme elevation, splendid glory and radiant pride reaches its utmost when his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) sealship is both essential and chronological. As regards to when it is limited to chronological sealship, his supremacy and his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) elevation in its perfection is not attained and his complete and comprehensive excellence is not acquired.” (al-Muhannad alal-Mufannad pp.51-52):


G. A. Parwez's Rejection of Prophesy

Continuing my critique of G. A. Parwez’s book Islam: A Challenge to Religion we now come to the author’s revised conception of Nubuwwa based on his materialist thought:
 
 
“To understand the nature of nubuwwah we must first get rid of a misconception. In the Jewish-Christian tradition, the ‘prophet’ is a man who prophesies or foretells future events. Endowed with unusual psychic powers, the ‘prophet’ is considered to be capable of foreseeing future happenings of which he warns the people. The Islamic conception of Nabi is quite different. As a matter of fact the term ‘prophethood’ as understood in English is not equivalent to the term ‘nubuwwah’ which the Qur’an uses in this context. The Nabi is not a ‘prophet’ or a soothsayer. His function is not divination but the communication of the revelation which has been vouchsafed to him. ‘Prophecy’ as understood by the Jews is completely irrelevant to the mission of the Nabi. He fulfills his mission if he communicates the Wahi as he has received it, without adding to or taking away anything from it. His purpose is not to prognosticate but to offer moral guidance to man in the light of Divine Revelation.” (pp. 97-98)
Parwez has audaciously declared that a Nabi does not “prognosticate” or “prophesy” i.e., forecast future happenings. He claims that Muslims have inherited a false understanding of what a Nabi is from the Judeo-Christian tradition. However, a cursory reading of the holy Qur’an reveals just how wrong Parwez is. The Qur’an repeatedly states that Allah reveals news of the unseen to the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم:

ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ أَنبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهِ إِلَيْكَ
That is from the news of the unseen. We reveal it to you
(Sura 3:44; 12:102)
تِلْكَ مِنْ أَنبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهَا إِلَيْكَ
That is from the news of the unseen. We reveal it to you
(Sura 11:49)
In the Qur’an itself are numerous prophecies concerning future happenings. For instance, the coming of Gog and Magog (Sura 18:98-99; 21:96),  and the Beast of the Earth (Sura 27:82), victory of the Romans after their defeat (Sura 30:3-4), Jesus the Messiah as a sign of the Hour (Sura 43:61), the visible smoke from the sky (Sura 44:10) etc. Even the Parwezis cannot deny that the Qur’an contains numerous prophecies concerning the approach of the Hour, i.e., Judgment Day, for that is in fact one of its most central themes. The Qur’an also cites the predictions of the Israelite Prophets, such as Jesus’s prophecy of an Apostle after him named Ahmad (Sura 61:6) and that this prophecy of the coming of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم is written in both the Torah and the Gospel (Sura 7:157). Prophet Moses عليه السلام is quoted as giving glad tidings to his people that Allah shall raise prophets and kings among them (Sura 5:20). Prophet Joseph عليه السلام had seen a vision in which the sun, moon and eleven stars were prostrating to him. Years later when his father Jacob عليه السلام and brothers came to him in Egypt, they prostrated to him, thus fulfilling the vision:

وَرَفَعَ أَبَوَيْهِ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَخَرُّوا لَهُ سُجَّدًا ۖ وَقَالَ يَا أَبَتِ هَـٰذَا تَأْوِيلُ رُؤْيَايَ مِن قَبْلُ قَدْ جَعَلَهَا رَبِّي حَقًّا
And he raised his parents upon the throne and they fell down before him in prostration. He said: “O my father, this is the interpretation of the vision from before. My Lord has made it true.”
(Sura 12:100)

The righteous priest Zechariah was given the glad tidings of a son, Yahya عليهما السلام while he was in extreme old age and his wife was barren (Sura 19:7-9). Likewise, non-prophets were given glad tidings of the birth of prophets. Abraham’s wife Sarah was given the glad tidings of the birth of her son Isaac and her grandson Jacobعليهم السلام  (Sura 11:71) and the virgin Mary was given glad tidings of the birth of her son Jesus عليهما السلام (Sura 19:19). Apart from being prophecies of future happenings, these were also examples of miraculous births. Furthermore, Parwez has slandered the concept of prophethood as held to by Jews and Christians by declaring it a type of divination and soothsaying based on “unusual psychic powers”. The Scriptures of the Jews and Christians severely condemn divination and soothsaying. The difference between prophethood and soothsaying is that the former is based on divine revelation from Allah Himself, through the medium of visions, dreams, inspiration or Angels, while divination and soothsaying has no relation to prophesy:
י  לֹא-יִמָּצֵא בְךָ, מַעֲבִיר בְּנוֹ-וּבִתּוֹ בָּאֵשׁ, קֹסֵם קְסָמִים, מְעוֹנֵן וּמְנַחֵשׁ וּמְכַשֵּׁף
יא  וְחֹבֵר, חָבֶר; וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי, וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל-הַמֵּתִים.
There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer, or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer.
(Deuteronomy 18:10-11)

Wednesday, 28 November 2018

Creation of Adam

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
والصلاة والسلام على رسوله الكريم
والعاقبة للمتقين
In a prior article, I discussed the creation of Adam in the Image of Allah Most High as not having transpired in this dimension, citing the Hadith narrated by sayyidina Abi Huraira رضى الله عنه that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ زُمْرَةٍ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ عَلَى صُورَةِ الْقَمَرِ لَيْلَةَ الْبَدْرِ، ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ عَلَى أَشَدِّ كَوْكَبٍ دُرِّيٍّ فِي السَّمَاءِ إِضَاءَةً، لاَ يَبُولُونَ وَلاَ يَتَغَوَّطُونَ وَلاَ يَتْفِلُونَ وَلاَ يَمْتَخِطُونَ، أَمْشَاطُهُمُ الذَّهَبُ، وَرَشْحُهُمُ الْمِسْكُ، وَمَجَامِرُهُمُ الأَلُوَّةُ الأَنْجُوجُ عُودُ الطِّيبِ، وَأَزْوَاجُهُمُ الْحُورُ الْعِينُ، عَلَى خَلْقِ رَجُلٍ وَاحِدٍ عَلَى صُورَةِ أَبِيهِمْ آدَمَ، سِتُّونَ ذِرَاعًا فِي السَّمَاءِ
“Verily, the first batch to enter Paradise will be upon the image of the full moon at night, then those who follow them upon the brightest star in the sky. They will not answer the call of nature, spit or blow their nose. Their combs will be of gold, and their perspiration will be musk. The fuel of their braziers will be aloes and their wives will be the Hur al-Ayn. They will be upon the appearance of a single man and will be upon the image of their father Adam, sixty cubits in Heaven.”
(Sahih al-Bukhari)
I take from this Hadith that Adam had a primordial creation in Heaven, and that is the parallel, heavenly Adam آدم المثالي which Allah says He created and moulded directly with His two Hands:
قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ
(Allah) said: “Hey Iblis, what prevented you from prostrating to that which I created with My two Hands?”
(Sura 38:75)

So it was to this primordial Adam in Heaven that Allah Most High commanded the Angels to prostrate. And when Iblis refused to prostrate out of pride, refusing to acknowledge the superiority of man over him, Allah expelled him from His presence:
قَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَن تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ
(Allah) said: “Get down from it for it is not for you to be bigheaded in it. So get out, verily, you are among the lowly.”
(Sura 7:13)

The expulsion of Iblis was from Heaven, from that dimension in which Allah created Adam with His own two Hands. However, there is a second expulsion of Iblis which was from the garden, the earthly paradise:
فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ
Satan caused them both (Adam and Eve) to slip from it and removed from them that which the two had. We said: “Get down (all of you), some of you enemies of others.”
(Sura 2:36)

It is apparent from this Ayah that Satan was present in Janna, the earthly garden, and therefore had access to Adam and Eve and was able to beguile them. Incidentally, this is a proof that Adam and his wife were dwelling in an earthly paradise and not in Heaven. Allah had already expelled Iblis from Heaven when he refused to prostrate to Adam - meaning the parallel, heavenly Adam which He created directly with His two Hands. In fact, as I have written elsewhere, Allah literally touched this parallel, heavenly body of Adam. That is what is meant when it is said that He created Adam with His Hands. Adam is among those three things which Allah made directly with His Hands, coming into actual contact, the other two being Jannah, which He planted with His own Hand, and the Torah, which He wrote with His own Hand. So the primordial creation of Adam was in another dimension, in Heaven, and that Adam was created in the Image of Allah, in the presence of Allah, being sixty cubits tall. As for the Adam that was created and appeared on this Earth, it is possible he was planted in the loins of his parents however many thousands, tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of years ago, Allah knows best. Allah says about the earthly creation of mankind:
وَاللَّـهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا
And Allah caused you to grow from the Earth as a vegetation
(Sura 71:17)

Here Allah is explaining the origin of humanity, meaning its earthly evolution. Furthermore, that lowly origin begins from water, and is common for all organic life on this planet:
وَاللَّـهُ خَلَقَ كُلَّ دَابَّةٍ مِّن مَّاءٍ ۖ فَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ بَطْنِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ رِجْلَيْنِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ أَرْبَعٍ ۚ يَخْلُقُ اللَّـهُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
And Allah created every living creature from water. From among them is the one that moves upon its belly, and from among them is the one that moves upon two legs and from among them is the one that moves upon four (legs). Allah creates what He wants. Verily, Allah has power over every thing.
(Sura 24:45)

The reference to bipedal creatures includes humans and other “humanoids” or “hominins”. The humble and lowly origin of modern human beings is inferred from another Ayah:
هَلْ أَتَىٰ عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئًا مَّذْكُورًا
Has not there come upon the human a period of time when he was not a thing mentioned
(Sura 76:1)

And this is also a reference to the human’s origin from the seed of his father, and the stages of his evolution before he is born. The reader may think I am affirming the theory of human evolution but I am not. I am only affirming the lowly, earthly origin of man and the possibility that the conclusions of modern biology do not necessarily clash with the Qur’anic narrative, for the Qur’anic narrative speaks of the heavenly, parallel Adam that was created in another dimension that today’s creationists, including Jews, Christians and Muslims, have confused with Adam’s earthly creation. On that basis, “creationists” emphatically reject modern theories of human evolution and the origin of life, while I neither affirm nor reject such theories outright. There are indeed some flaws and problems with the theory of human evolution as articulated by biologists and Darwinian evolutionists, though it is not my purpose here to discuss that particular subject. I have only put forward my metaphysical belief in the primordial, heavenly creation of Adam in another dimension and stated that the earthly creation of mankind was indeed through an evolutionary process though the details of it are open for debate.
Here I would also like to make a distinction between the terms Bani Adam and Insan. These terms are often considered synonymous, but according to my understanding, while all the children of Adam are included in the category of Insan, the latter is broader and may possibly include other branches of homo sapiens that are either extinct or lesser forms of the taxonomic humans specie. From the Islamic perspective, they are not the Bani Adam into whom Allah breathed from His Spirit and gave a distinct consciousness, and to whom the message of the Prophets and Apostles was addressed. Therefore, the Qur’anic term Bani Adam should not be considered necessarily synonymous with biological terms like homo sapien or human. When Allah informed the Angels He was going to place Bani Adam on the Earth as khalifa, a successive authority, meaning they would have dominion over it surpassing and overtaking all other forms of life that were already there, the Angels asked:

أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ
“Will you place therein one that will cause corruption therein and shed blood?”
(Sura 2:30)

Classical exegetes explain that the question of the Angels, who do not possess knowledge of the unseen, was from an inference based on what they had observed thus far of living creatures on the Earth that resembled Bani Adam. The fossil record, which cannot be ignored, reveal the existence of various ancient “humanoid” bipedal species that walked this Earth, such as the australopithecines and archaic humans (the many species of homo that existed prior to modern human beings or Bani Adam). According to the observation of the Angels, these various bipedals caused corruption through their violence, and so it was asked how Bani Adam could be any different.

Sayyidatuna Aishah (RA): Say He is Seal of Prophets But Don't Say 'No Prophet After Him'

  باسمك اللهم اللهم صلى على سيدنا محمد The Mother of Believers, sayyidatuna A’ishah سلام الله عليها reportedly said: قُولُوا خَاتَمُ الن...