Sunday, 28 February 2021

Qasim Nanautawi Feeling the Heaviness of Revelation on His Heart

 بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ

وصلى الله على من لا نبي بعده

Many Muslims mistakenly imagine that Wahi – divine revelation – has come to an absolute end after the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

However, since Wahi is not a phenomenon that is exclusive to the Prophets of God, as is quite evident from the Quran which gives plenty of examples of non-Prophets receiving divine revelation, that is communication and inspiration from Allah جلّ جلاله

The Devbandis have gone even a step further in affirming the possibility and actuality of saints of this Ummah experiencing the same physiological effects of receiving Wahi upon their hearts as was experienced by the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم

It is narrated that once Qasim Nanautawi – the founder of the Devband school – felt as though the weight of a hundred tons of stones was weighing down upon his heart as a consequence of offering Tasbih (glorification of Allah). His spiritual mentor and pir, Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (1817-1899), reassured him by saying:

یہ نبوت کا آپ کے قلب پر فیضان ہوتا ہے، اور یہ وہ ثقل ہے، جو حضور صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کو وحی کے وقت محسوس ہوتا تھا۔

تم سے حق تعالی کو وہ کام لینا ہے جو نبیوں سے لیا جاتا ہے

These are the emanations [faidan] of Prophesy on your heart. And this is that heaviness which the Prophet sall Allahu alaihi wasallam used to feel at the time of Revelation.

God shall take from you such a service as it taken from Prophets.

(Sawanih Qasimi; v.1, p.259):

Saturday, 27 February 2021

Twelver Shi'ite Hadith: Quran Was Originally Revealed in 17 Thousand Verses

 بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ

اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ السَّمَوَاتِ وَرَبَّ الأَرْضِ وَرَبَّ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ فَالِقَ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَى مُنْزِلَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنْجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ الْعَظِيمِ

Perhaps one of the most serious heresies of the Twelver Shi’ah sect is their belief that the holy Quran that was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad via the Angel Gabriel عليهما السلام is not the same Quran that is present with the Muslims till this day.

Allah Most High declares:

اِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَزَّلۡنَا الذِّکۡرَ وَ اِنَّا لَہٗ لَحٰفِظُوۡنَ

Verily, We Ourself have sent down this Exhortation, and most surely We will be its Guardian

(Surah 15:9)

The Twelver Shi’ah heresy of tahrif al-Quran can be decisively demonstrated from countless narrations attributed to their Imams in their literature, as well as the statements of their heavyweight Ulama. The following Hadith is attributed to their sixth imam, Ja’far al-Sadiq عليه الرحمة:

علي بن الحكم عن هشام بن سالم عن أبي عبد الله عليه‌السلام قال إن القرآن الذي جاء به جبرئيل عليه‌السلام إلى محمد صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله سبعة عشر ألف آية

Ali b. al-Hakam, from Hisham b. Salim, from Abi Abdillah peace be upon him, he said: “Indeed, the Quran with which Gabriel peace be upon him came to Muhammad blessings of Allah upon him and his family [consisted of] seventeen thousand verses” (al-Kafi; v.2, p.350, Kitab Fadl al-Quran, Bab al-Nawadir, #29):

Mulla Baqir Majlisi declared this narration authentic, and further explained that the Shi’ite belief in the distortion of the Quran is based on narrations which are mutawatir in meaning:

الحديث الثامن والعشرون : موثق. وفي بعض النسخ عن هشام بن سالم موضع هارون بن مسلم فالخبر صحيح ولا يخفى أن هذا الخبر وكثير من الأخبار الصحيحة صريحة في نقص القرآن وتغييره ، وعندي أن الأخبار في هذا الباب متواترة معنى

(Mirat al-Uqul; v.12, pp.525-526):

Baqir Majlisi’s father, Taqi Majlisi, also a well known scholar of the Twelver madhhab, likewise declared this narration authentic (Rawdat ul-Muttaqun; v.10, pp.20-21):

Another major Twelver Shi’ite scholar and muhaddith, al-Hurr al-Amili (d.1104 H), concurred that this Hadith is authentic (al-Fawa’id al-Tussiyah, p.483):

Devbandi Quoting 21:22 to Defend Tahdhir un-Nas

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

والصلاة والسلام على خاتم النبيين

One of the most controversial beliefs of the Devbandi sect, originating with the founder of the sect, Muhammad Qasim of Nanauta (1832-1880), as expressed in his book Tahdhir un-Nas, is that if, hypothetically, a prophet were to appear after the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم it would not affect khatm an-Nubuwwah, meaning the appearance of a new prophet would not compromise Prophet Muhammad being the ‘Seal of Prophets’.

A contemporary Devbandi cleric, Anis Bajwah, attempted to defend Qasim Nanautawi’s statement in Tahdhir un-Nas, in a debate held in 2012 with the Ahl al-Hadith sect in Pakistan, represented by Yahya Arifi:

In his pathetic defense of the charge levelled against Qasim Nanautawi by both the Barelawis and Ahl al-Hadith sects, Anis Bajwah quoted the following Ayah of the holy Quran:

لَوۡ کَانَ فِیۡہِمَاۤ اٰلِہَۃٌ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ لَفَسَدَتَا

If there had been in them [the heavens and the earth] other gods beside Allah, then surely both would have gone to ruin

(Surah 21:22)

However, this Ayah can by no means rescue the Devbandis from the hole they dug themselves in when they claim that if another prophet were to appear after Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم it would not affect his being the ‘Seal of the Prophets’. Had this Ayah stated that if there were in fact other gods beside Allah it would not affect the Oneness of Allah, or the divine system that governs the cosmos would not be thrown into chaos, then Anis Bajwah would have been justified in quoting it as a defense of what is written in Tahdhir un-Nas. But as it quite evident, that is not at all the purport of the Ayah 21:22, therefore, it serves no purpose for the Devbandis to cite it as a defense.

Tuesday, 23 February 2021

Rashid Gangohi: Takfir of a Sahabi Doesn't Expel Someone From Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Devbandis boast they are at the forefront in battling the Rafidah—those perverse people who curse and denigrate the Prophet’s illustrious companions, may Allah be happy with them all. Yet we see that their elders, the likes of Rashid Gangohi, had an altogether different approach to this contentious issue. The latter said:

جو شخص صحابہ کرام میں سے کسی کی تکفیر کرے وہ ملعون ہے ایسےشخص کو امام مسجد بنانا حرام ہے اور وہ اپنے اس گناہ کبیرہ کے سبب سنت جماعت سے خارج نہ ہوگا۔

Whoever makes takfir of anyone from among the honorable Sahabah is cursed. It is forbidden to appoint such a person as an imam in the mosque, but as a consequence of this major sin he isn’t expelled from the Sunnah group (Fatawa Rashidiyah; p.274):

This is an absolutely shocking fatwa from someone whom the Devbandis consider perhaps the most senior figure in their maslak (school of thought). While it is true, and certainly my position, that someone, such as a Rafidi Shi’i, who curses a Sahabi, or makes takfir of a Sahabi, or else denigrates a Sahabi in some other way, is an evil, wicked and cursed individual who we nonetheless do not declare a non-Muslim as long as he professes Islam, Rashid Gangohi has said that such an act or attitude isn’t sufficient to expel someone from the circle of orthodox, Sunni Islam. The truth is, one who mocks or denigrates a Sahabi even lightly is certainly a misguided, non-Sunni, let alone one who makes takfir of any Sahabi. It should be known that the official position of the Ithna Ashari sect of Shi’ah is that after the death of the Prophet (sall Allahu alaihi wasallam), the vast majority of the Sahabah became apostate with only a handful of exceptions!

Monday, 22 February 2021

Fabricated Narration: Ali is My Wasi and My Khalifah Among You

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

The Imamiyah Shi’ah assert that the Prophet Muhammad (sall Allahu alaihi wasallam) appointed his first cousin and son-in-law, Ali bin Abi Talib (radi Allahu anhu), to the office of caliphate, or succession to him immediately upon his departure from this mundane world. They present as evidence for this claim the incident known as da’wat al-ashīrah during the Meccan phase of the Prophet’s ministry, in which he gathered his clansmen and invited them to believe in him as a prophet. In one such version of this incident, it is narrated:

Ibn Humayd—Salamah—Muhammad b. Ishaq—Abd al-Ghaffar b. al-Qasim—al-Minhal b. Amr—Abdallah b. al-Harith b. Nawfal b. al-Harith b. Abd al-Muttalib—Abdallah b. Abbas—Ali b. Abi Talib: When the verse “and warn your tribe of near kindred” was revealed to the Messenger of God...[he said]: “Banu Abd al-Muttalib, I know of no young man among the Arabs who has brought his people something better than what I have brought to you. I bring you the best of this world and the next, for God has commanded me to summon you to him.

فَأَيُّكُمْ يُؤَازِرُنِي عَلَى هَذَا الأَمْرِ عَلَى أَنْ يَكُونَ أَخِي وَوَصِيِّي وَخَلِيفَتِي فِيكُمْ قَالَ فَأَحْجَمَ الْقَوْمُ عَنْهَا جَمِيعًا وَقُلْتُ وَإِنِّي لأَحْدَثُهُمْ سِنًّا وَأَرْمَصُهُمْ عَيْنًا وَأَعْظَمُهُمْ بَطْنًا وَأَحْمَشُهُمْ سَاقًا أَنَا يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ أَكُونُ وَزِيرَكَ عَلَيْهِ فَأَخَذَ بِرَقَبَتِي ثُمَّ قَالَ ان هذا ‌أخي ‌ووصى ‌وَخَلِيفَتِي ‌فِيكُمْ فَاسْمَعُوا لَهُ وَأَطِيعُوا

Which of you will aid me in this matter, so that he will be my brother, my agent [wasi] and my successor [khalifah] among you?” They all held back, and although I [Ali b. Abi Talib] was the youngest and the most bleary-eyed, pot-bellied, and spindly-legged of them, I said, “I will be your helper, Prophet of God.” He put his hand on the back of my neck and said, “This is my brother, my agent, and my successor among you, so listen to him and obey him.”

They rose up laughing and saying to Abu Talib, “He has commanded you to listen to your son and obey him!” (Tarikh at-Tabari; v.2, p.319, 321):

However, this Hadith cannot authentically be attributed to the Prophet (sall Allahu alaihi wasallam) because of the presence of the narrator Abd al-Ghaffar bin al-Qasim, who is a fabricator, as Ali bin al-Madini has stated:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمد بن خلف، حَدَّثني أبو العباس القرشي ‌قال ‌علي ‌بن ‌المديني ‌أبو ‌مريم ‌الحنفي ‌اسمه ‌عَبد ‌الغفار ‌بن ‌القاسم ‌وكان ‌يضع ‌الحديث

(al-Kamil fi Du’afa al-Rijal)

Ibn Abi Hatim has mentioned the detailed criticism of this narrator in his al-Jarh wal-Ta’dil, in which it is explained that Abi Maryam Abd al-Ghaffar bin al-Qasim al-Ansari is matrūk al-hadīth and that he is from among the chiefs of the Shi’ah sect.

Sunday, 21 February 2021

Twelfth Imam: Fact or Fiction (Part 2)

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

وصلى الله تعالى على نبيه الكريم

وعلى آله واصحابه اجمعين

A little over two years ago I published a piece on this blog arguing that the Twelfth Imam of the Ithna Ashari Shi’ah sect is a fictional character for whom there is no solid historical evidence of existence. This is extremely problematic for the Twelvers given that belief in this twelfth Imam is one of the most fundamental doctrines of their sect. In fact, it is their defining feature which differentiates them from the other sects of the Shi’ah and the Imamiyah. Just to recap, the arguments I put forward in that article were:

  1. The splitting of the followers of the Eleventh Imam at his death into numerous factions, the majority of which altogether denied that the Eleventh Imam had a son, or those that affirmed a son for him differed regarding critical details.

  2. Confusion as to the alleged identity of the Twelfth Imam’s mother. Since the Eleventh Imam never married, the Twelvers claim he took a concubine who birthed for him this mysterious Twelfth Imam. However, there are so many contradictory reports in their literature regarding the details of this concubine, including her very name.

  3. The Twelvers claim there was no sign of pregnancy in the mother of the Twelfth Imam throughout the duration of her pregnancy. This especially casts doubt on the birth of a child to the Eleventh Imam.

In this second part I shall elaborate further on each of these three points, and also present some additional arguments which cast serious doubt on the existence of the Twelfth Imam.

As for the factions that emerged at the death of the Eleventh Imam – Hasan al-Zaki – al-Nawbakhti, himself a Twelver, has described them in some detail. He writes that the community split into fourteen distinct groups, but only writes concerning thirteen of them:

1. A group which denied a son being born to the Eleventh Imam. They believed there must always be a living Imam in the world, and so denied the death of the Eleventh Imam, instead saying that the Eleventh Imam is the one who went into occultation and that he is the awaited Mahdi.

2. A group, like the previous one, denied a son for the Eleventh Imam. They also agreed with the first group that there must always be a living Imam in the world, but they acknowledged that the Eleventh Imam died. They resolved this problem by believing the Eleventh Imam was raised back to life shortly after his death, went into occultation, and that he is the Mahdi, in keeping with a linguistic interpretation of the title al-Qa’im which means “the one who is resurrected”.
3. A group, like the previous two, which denied a son for the Eleventh Imam. But they acknowledged the death of the Eleventh Imam but said he designated his younger brother Ja’far his successor.
4. A group which not only denied a son for the Eleventh Imam, but said that the Eleventh Imam, Hasan al-Zaki, could not have been an Imam since he died without a son to succeed him. They claimed that the true Eleventh Imam was therefore Ja’far, who was designated by the Tenth Imam, Ali al-Naqi, to succeed him.
5. Like the previous four groups, this group also denied a son being born to Hasan al-Askari. They believe that the Tenth Imam – Ali al-Naqi – designated his eldest son Muhammad to succeed him as the Eleventh Imam, although he apparently died in his father’s lifetime. It therefore seems that they denied the death of this Muhammad, and that they believe he is the Mahdi.
6. This is the first of the groups so far which believe the Eleventh Imam had a son, who was named Muhammad, whom his father declared his successor. They believe he was born several years before his father’s death, and that he went into occultation.
7. This is the second group which affirms a son, named Muhammad, for the Eleventh Imam, and he went into occultation, but differ from the previous group in that they say he was born eight months after the Eleventh Imam died, and they outright deny that a son was born to the Eleventh Imam which he was alive.
8. This is the sixth group which denies the Eleventh Imam had a son, because of the lack of evidence for such a claim. Nawbakhti gives no further details about this group.
9. This is the seventh group which denies the Eleventh Imam had a son. They believe the Eleventh Imam died and the Imamate has therefore ceased as a living institution. But they believe, if Allah wills, He will send the Mahdi sometime in the future who will be from the family of the Prophet.
10. This is the eighth group which denies the Eleventh Imam – Hasan bin Ali al-Naqi – had a son. They say that the Tenth Imam designated his son Muhammad his successor, though he died in his father’s lifetime. But while he was alive, this Muhammad intended that his younger brother Ja’far should succeed him. This was disclosed to a servant of the Tenth Imam named Nafis, who announced and supported the Imamate of Ja’far after Hasan al-Askari died. This sect has an actual name, the Nafisiyyah. They believe Ja’far bin Ali is the Qa’im, the Mahdi, and say he is the most superior person after the Prophet himself.
11. This group is unsure and non-committal on the question of whether the Eleventh Imam had a son. They affirm that the Eleventh Imam died and that the world cannot remain without a living Imam. Therefore, they say that the Twelfth Imam is unknown, he could either be the son of the Eleventh Imam or he could be one of the brothers of the Eleventh Imam.
12. This is the group which Nawbakhti identifies as his Twelvers – the Ithna Asharis that persist till this day.
13. This is the ninth group which denies the Eleventh Imam had a son. They believe the Eleventh Imam died and the Imamate was transferred to his brother Ja’far.
From our Sunni sources, the heresiographer, Ibn Abd al-Karim al-Shahrastani, likewise mentions the splitting of the followers of the Eleventh Imam after his death, and describes eleven such groups, which mostly correspond to Nawbakhti’s list:
  1. identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the first group

  2. identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the second group

  3. identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the third group

  4. identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the fourth group

  5. identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the fifth group. Al-Shahrastani adds that they recognize the Imamate of the Tenth Imam’s son Muhammad because he had children, so we can assume the believed the Imamate was transferred to the sons of this Muhammad.

  6. Identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the sixth group. Al-Shahrastani explains that they believe the alleged son of the Eleventh Imam, named Muhammad, was born two years before his father died.

  7. Identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the seventh group

  8. identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the ninth group.

  9. A group which affirmed the existence of a son for the Eleventh Imam, but are unsure about any of his details, including whether he was born before or after his father’s death. They believe this Twelfth Imam went into occultation.

  10. Identical to Nawbakhti’s description of the eleventh group

  11. A group which is unsure about the entire affair, for example, if the Eleventh Imam had a son or not.

In summary, of the thirteen factions mentioned by al-Nawbakhti, nine of them outright denied that the Eleventh Imam, Hasan al-Askari, had a son. And in al-Shahrastani’s list of eleven factions, seven outright denied that the Eleventh Imam had a son.

As for those factions that affirm a son for the Eleventh Imam, they differ as to when he was born, either before or after the Eleventh Imam’s death.

Then there are a few factions which were unsure on the question of a son being born to the Eleventh Imam. Based on this, we cannot help but conclude that the idea of the Eleventh Imam having a son is a myth, otherwise there wouldn’t have been so many factions, independent of each other, from among his original followers who would deny it. And those factions which do claim he had a son have contradictory accounts, some say he was born several years before his father died, while others say he was born eight months after his father died.

The second pillar of my argument is the confusion over the identity of the Twelfth Imam’s alleged mother. There are at least eight different names that have been narrated in Twelver literature for the concubine of the Eleventh Imam who bore him a son: Narjis, Sawsan, Saqīl, Rayhāna, Malīka, Hukayma, Maryam, Khumt. Though some Twelver apologists suggest these are all different names of the same woman, their narrations invalidate this argument. Some suggest the concubine was a Roman princess, the granddaughter of one of the Caesars, and also a descendant of Jesus’s chief disciple, Simeon Peter, while others say she was a black woman, a Nubian from the northern region of Sudan.

Saturday, 20 February 2021

Weak Hadith: I Leave Two Caliphs Book of Allah and My Progeny

 باسمك اللهم

One of the proofs presented by the Shi’ah that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم appointed his ahl al-Bait (household) to the role of earthly leadership and administration of the affairs of the Ummah after him is the Hadith:

إِنِّي تَارِكٌ فِيكُمْ ‌خَلِيفَتَيْنِ كِتَابُ اللهِ حَبْلٌ مَمْدُودٌ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَوْ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ وَعِتْرَتِي أَهْلُ بَيْتِي وَإِنَّهُمَا لَنْ يَتَفَرَّقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ

I am leaving among you two successors [khalīfatayn]: the Book of Allah, the rope suspended between Heaven and Earth, and my progeny, the ahl al-Bait. And these two shall not be separated until they return to me at the Hawd

(Musnad Ahmad; v.35, p.456, #21578; v.35, p.512, #21654)

Firstly, the Hadith with this wording, describing the ahl al-Bait as one of the khalīfatayn or two “caliphs” of the Prophet, is weak due to the poor memory of the narrator Sharīk, who is Ibn Abd Allāh an-Nakha’i as Shu’aib Arnaut has explained:

وهذا إسناد ضعيف لسوء حفظ شريك، وهو ابن عبد الله النخعي

The correct version of this is the Hadīth ath-Thaqalayn which I have explained previously. Nevertheless, if we put aside the weakness of this Hadith with this wording, hypothetically and for the time being, and accept that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did in fact refer to his ahl al-Bait as one of his two caliphs or successors he was leaving behind, does it justify the stance of the Shi’ah?

The first problem for the Shi’ah argument is that the term ahl al-Bait also includes the Prophet’s wives, mothers of the believers رضى الله عنهنّ as proven from the Qurān (33:33). Ahl al-Bait literally means “people of the House”. Common sense dictates that a man’s wives are an integral part of his household and included within his family.

Secondly, the narration describes ahl al-Bait as the Prophet’s successor collectively, whereas the Shi’ah argue that only select individuals from among the ahl al-Bait were invested with the role of Khilāfah, namely, the twelve Imams. However, this idea of only twelve individuals from among the ahl al-Bait as being the successors or caliphs of the Prophet عليه السلام cannot be extrapolated from the wording of this narration.

Thirdly, this narration uses the term itrati “my progeny”. The linguist Ibn al-A’rābi said:

العِتْرة ‌ولدُ ‌الرَّجُلِ ‌وَذُرِّيَّتُهُ ‌وعَقِبُه ‌مِنْ ‌صُلْبه قَالَ فعِتْرةُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ولدُ فَاطِمَةَ البَتُول عَلَيْهَا السَّلَامُ

"The itrah are the children of a man and his descendants and offspring of his loins." He said: "So the irtrah of the Prophet sall Allahu alaihi wasallam are the children of Fatimah the virgin peace be upon her." (Lisān al-Arab; v.4, p.538):

So going by this narrow and restricted definition of itrah, which excludes the Prophet’s wives and his other relatives and their progeny, is still extremely problematic for the Shi’ah as it will necessarily exclude sayyidina Ali كرم الله وجهه too, whom they believe is the very first Imam, the Prophet’s immediate successor.

Finally, it is not necessary that the word khalīfah indicates a successor in earthly/political/administrative authority. We non-Shi’ite Muslims, at least myself, acknowledge the role of the ahl al-Bait as spiritual successors and heirs of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, by virtue of their piety, knowledge and guidance.

Sunday, 14 February 2021

White Skullcap is Sunnah and Marker of Muslim Identity


لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

One of the markers of identity for Muslim men is the white skullcap. Sadly, due to the toxic influence of the modernist thought, and the spread of cultural Westernization, the vast majority of Muslims have abandoned the identity marker of the white skullcap or hat, and tend to go about bareheaded. This is in stark opposition to not only the Sunnah of the Prophet sall Allāhu alaihi wasallam, but also the way of his Sahābah and the early Muslims radi Allāhu anhum.

Sayyidinā Ibn Umar radi Allāhu anhuma narrates:

كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَلْبَسُ ‌كُمَّةً ‌بَيْضَاءَ

The Apostle of Allah sall Allāhu alaihi wasallam used to wear a white kummah (small hat or skullcap)

(Mu’jam al-Awsat; v.6, p.200, #6183):

This has also been narrated from sayyidinā Anas bin Mālik and umm al-Mu’minīn Ā’ishah radi Allāhu anhumā (Tārikh Dimashq; v.4, p.193):

Covering the head with a white skullcap is universally recognized as the identity marker of Muslim men. It is crucial for Muslims to identify and distinguish themselves from non-Muslims. These days many Muslim men have discarded the skullcap out of shame and embarrassment for being recognized as Muslims. Not only is wearing a white cap the proven Sunnah, it has been the most common practice of visible Muslims for generation upon generation. Another wisdom of covering the head is that it is a sign of respect to Heaven, for the Holy One Who resides in Heaven.

Friday, 12 February 2021

Wahb b. Munabbih and Death of Jesus

 لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

The great Yemenite scholar Wahb bin Munabbih رحمة الله عليه from the 8th century CE was one of those early Muslim authorities who believed that the Messiah عليه السلام has already died:

حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ حُمَيْدٍ قَالَ ثنا سَلَمَةُ عَنِ ابْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَمَّنْ لَا يُتَّهَمُ عَنْ وَهْبِ بْنِ مُنَبِّهٍ الْيَمَانِيِّ أَنَّهُ قَالَ ‌تَوَفَّى ‌اللَّهُ ‌عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ ثَلَاثَ سَاعَاتٍ مِنَ النَّهَارِ حَتَّى رَفَعَهُ إِلَيْهِ

Allah caused Jesus son of Mary to die for three hours during the day until He raised him to Himself (Tafsir at-Tabari; v.5, p.450):

Note that Ibn Jarir at-Tabari put this narration under the heading

وقال آخَرون معنى ذلك إنّى مُتَوَفِّيك وفاةَ موتٍ

ذكرُ مَن قال ذلك

The others who say the meaning of ‘Inni Mutawaffīka’ is ‘Wafāta Mawtin’ [Death]

Ibn Abi Hatim has likewise mentioned this narration of Wahb b. Munabbih with his own sanad in his Tafsir (p.661, #3581):

Inayatullah Wazirabadi Claimed Jesus had a Father (Joseph)


لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

Muslims believe, on the basis of the crystal clear āyāt of the Qurān, that the Messiah Jesus son of Mary على نبينا وعليهما السلام had an extraordinary or unusual birth in that it was the birth of a human child without the agency of a fathervirgin birth. Like the Muslims, the vast majority of Christians likewise believe in the virgin birth, although their scriptures appear to contradict themselves on this matter. While the virgin birth narrative is found in both the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, those same Gospels attribute a genealogy to Jesus for the purpose of proving his descent from King David through Joseph the carpenter. However, an early Christian sect, the Ebionites, rejected belief in the virgin birth, instead believing that Jesus was the biological son of Joseph the carpenter. Another Jewish-Christian sect, the Nazarenes of the 4th century CE, like the Ebionites, rejected the divinity of Jesus but unlike the Ebionites they affirmed the virgin birth. Thus they appear to be the closest Christian sect in the days of early Christianity to the teachings of Islām.

Virtually all Muslims affirmed the virgin birth of Christ until modern times. The naturalist and materialist heretic, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, was perhaps the first major Muslim intellectual to reject the virgin birth. Likewise, the so-called “Quranists” (Sunnah and Hadīth rejecters), like Ghulam Ahmad Perwez, also rejected the virgin birth of Christ, claiming he was born like any ordinary human and had a biological father. Another Muslim sect which rejects the virgin birth is the Lahore Ahmadiyyah movement, which has published several books arguing the position that Joseph the carpenter was Jesus’s biological father. This despite the fact that the founder of the Ahmadiyyah movement, Mirzā Ghulām Ahmad, and the mainstream Ahmadis, emphatically affirm the virgin birth of Christ.

But it is quite surprising that even among the so called orthodox and fundamentalist Muslims, like the puritanical ahl al-Hadīth sect, there were Ulamā who apparently rejected the virgin birth doctrine. For instance, Inayat Ullāh Athari Wazīrābādi wrote an entire treatise, entitled Uyūn Zamzam fī Milād Īsā Ibn Maryam dedicated to refuting the traditional Islamic belief in the virgin birth. In it he claimed that the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم affirmed that Jesus had a father, and that he was the son of Joseph the carpenter:

رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے عیسی علیہ الصلاۃ والسلام کا باپ تسلیم فرمایا ہے

رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے عیسائیوں کے بالمقابل پیش فرمایا کہ عیسی علیہ الصلاۃ والسلام اپنے باپ یوسف سے مشابہ تھا لہذا وہ اس کا بیٹا ہے

عیسی علیہ الصلاۃ والسلام کا بھی دوسروں کی طرح باپ ہے

رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے عیسی علیہ الصلاۃ والسلام کا صحیح باپ تسلیم فرماکر عیسائیوں کا ناطقہ بند فرمایا ہے

(pp. 105-107):

Sayyidatuna Aishah (RA): Say He is Seal of Prophets But Don't Say 'No Prophet After Him'

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